이난영 - Lee Nan-Young (Lee, Ran Young) / Yi Nan Young ; (-Oka Ranko-)



The first few tracks show the best of possibilities, in that Lee Nan-Young has the sort of qualities in her voice and singing that shows a certain emotion in her voice, with a distinctive sad sensitive quality. The first track is just acoustic picking, violin and voice only, which shows these qualities best. Most tracks are in Trot style with a minor old time jazz influence. The voice goes very high. A few track are in dialogue male/female voice, with some harmony singing too (18). Often we have the small combo of brass/reed and strings, here and there with Korean clarinet, fute or violin solos or accordion, wahwah trumpet with a small solo accent. There are a few special melodies and songs (14). An enjoyable release.


The second volume reveals that the repetition of Trot style has it’s consequences in that some of it’s music becomes too predictable, making more a style than really re-inventing the moment of inspiration, even when Lee Nan Young’s voice is good, her range becomes also more limited that way. New on this is the use of more Hawaiian guitar, and more influence from jazz, boogie and so on without exaggeration, but when it does a bit more it does give a welcome alternation expanding a style exercise, a tendency which still start to bore me after a while. It still is a bit a shame for all the qualities present here. Last few tracks shows some use of vibes too (with accordion/guitar/piano,..).


This one came from this 23-CD box:


유성기로 듣던 불멸의 명가수: 이난영 1 /

the once great immortals from the phonograph era : Lee Nan-Young vol.1

* 1 고적(孤寂) / Archaeological site (1933) (OKEH 1587)

2 사랑의 고개 / Head of Love (OKEH 1618)

* 3 오대강타령(五大江打鈴)/ Odaegang Taeryeong (OKEH 1681)

* 4 봄강 / Spring River (OKEH 1681)

* 5 어촌(漁村) 낙조(落照) / Fishing village (OKEH 1733)

* 6 목포(木浦)의 눈물 / Tears of Mokpo (1935) (OKEH 1795)

* 7 봄아가씨 / Girl of Springtime (OKEH 1795)

* 8 낙화(落花)의 눈물 / Tears of Falling Flowers (OKEH 1889)

9 남포(南浦)로 가는 배 / Ship to Nampo (OKEH 1901)

* 10 명랑(明郞)한 젊은 날 / A cheerful young day (OKEH 1906) -jazz tune cover-

11 이별(離別) 전야(前夜) / Goodbye Eve (OKEH 1928)

12 추억(追憶)의 등대(燈臺) / Lighthouse of Memories (OKEH 1943)

13 고향(故鄕)은 부른다 / Hometown Calls (OKEH 1963)

* 14 올팡갈팡 / Alpine Galpine (OKEH 1963)

15 문허진 황성(荒城) / Moon Hue Jin Hwangseong (OKEH 12039)

16 피 무든 편지(便紙) / Blood soaked Letters (OKEH 12039)

17 산호(珊瑚)빛 하소연 / Coral (OKEH 12113)

18 미소(微笑)의 코스 / Smile (OKEH 12148)

19 괄세를 마오 / Mao's Tariff (?) (OKEH 12155)

Tracks with * I consider essential listens or classics, or tracks not to miss to check out. They are of course also very suitable for western radioshow airplay.

유성기로 듣던 불멸의 명가수: 이난영 2 (STNCD-126) vol 4

the once great immortals from the phonograph era : Lee Nan-Young vol.2

* 1 목포(木浦)의 추억(追憶) / Memory of Mokpo (OKEH 12204)

2 돈 반(半) 정 반(半) / Half the money please (OKEH 12216)

3 달 업는 항로(航路) / Moonless Passage (OKEH 12237)

4 남행열차(南行列車) / Southern train (OKEH 12247)

* 5 바다의 꿈 / Dream of the sea (OKEH 12263) -jazz-

* 6 연락선(連絡船) 비가(悲歌) / Ferry Rain (OKEH 12273)

7 다방(茶房)의 푸른 꿈 / Blue dream of tea room (OKEH 12282) -jazz-

* 8 담배집 처녀(處女) / Tobacco House Maiden (OKEH 20004) -whistling-

9 사공(沙工)의 딸 / Daughter of Sagong (OKEH 20008)

10 우러라 문풍지(門風紙) / Munfengji Temple (OKEH 20016)

11 항구(港口)야 울지마라 / Harbour, don't you cry (OKEH 20025)

12 항구(港口)의 불근 소매 / Robust Retail in Ports (OKEH 20058)

13 가거라 똑딱선 / Go straight (OKEH K5011)

14 서창(西窓)의 밤눈물 / Night Cry of Seochang (OKEH K5021)

* 15 꿈꾸는 타관역(他關驛) / Dreaming Taegwan Station (OKEH K5026) -train whistle-

16 진달래 시첩(詩帖) / Rhododendron hinge (OKEH 31016)

17 날짜 없는 일기(日記) / Diary without a date (OKEH 31019)

18 할빈 다방(茶房) / Harbin Cafe (OKEH 31099)

19 목포(木浦)는 항구(港口)다 / Mokpo is a harbor (OKEH 31103)


유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 1]

* 18 고적(孤寂) / the left-behing (archeological site) (1932/33)


유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 2]

* 1 불사조(不死鳥) / Phoenix (1933)

* 11 봄마지 (봄맞이) / Spring Break (1934)



유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 3]

1 목포(木浦)의 눈물 / Mokpo Tears (1935)

2 어촌(漁村) 낙조(落照) / Fishing Village (1935)

12 갑판의 소야곡 / Soyagok Deck ?? (1936)


유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 7]


5 다방(茶房)의 푸른 꿈 / Blue dream of tea room

This warm soulful song clearly has an American blues feel to the singing, and has also rather jazz arrangements.


유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 8]

18 울어라 문풍지(門風紙) / Cry Wind, Cry (1940)

19 흘겨본 과거몽(過去夢) / Past dreams (1940)

유성기로 듣던 가요사 / Songs that I heard during the musical period from 1925~1945 [Disc 9]

9 진달래 시첩 / Rhododendron hinge (1941)


Oasis (CD) 이난영 - 오리지날 힛송 총결산집 1991.08.22

This compilation of old pop songs with trot and mambo influences sounds remarkably fresh and great to listen to. Recommended classic. There's no real mood overdoing it, the overall effect is still successful as an album after all these years.


1 목포의 눈물 / Mokpo tears

2 해조곡 / Algae

3 선창에 울러왔다 / Came to the dock

4 알아달라우요 / I know

5 임 전상서 / Im Sang-Seon

6 과거몽 / Past dreams

* 7 봄 아가씨 / Spring babes

* 8 봄맞이 / Spring

9 목포는 항구다 / Mokpo's port

10 불사조 / Phoenix

11 고향 / Hometown

* 12 해수욕장 풍경 / The beach scene(ry)

13 달없는 향로 / Moonless Censer

It's hard to say if any of these songs are or can or cannot be classics. I tried to pick out the tracks that catch most attention, to check out first.

Other tracks I have heard:

눈감은 포구 / Eyes are muzzle (1940,11)

해조곡 / Algae Song (1937)

일허버린 아버지 / Her Father (1939.8)

세월은 간다 / As Time goes by

흘러간 학창 / Flowing school window (1941.4)

흘러온 남매 / Siblings (1947)

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BIOGRAPHIES:

https://www.revolvy.com/page/Lee-Nan%252Dyoung?stype=videos&cmd=list&cr=1 :


Lee Nan-young (Korean: 이난영; June 6, 1916 – April 11, 1965) was a Korean singer and actress most famous for the 1935 hit trot song "Tears of Mokpo", which sold 50,000 copies.


Lee was born in Japanese Korea, in the port city of Mokpo, South Jeolla Province. Her name at birth was Lee Ok-soon (이옥순), but it was later changed to Lee Ok-rye (이옥례).Her father's name was Lee Nam-soon (이남순) and she had a brother, Lee Bong-ryong, who was a composer. She had a difficult childhood and did not graduate from school. She became an actress in 1930, and debuted as a singer under OK Records in 1932, with the stage name Lee Nan-young. She was also a member of Jeogori Sisters, considered to be Korea's first girl group. She was the original singer of 'Tears of Mokpo,' one of the hit-songs in the history of Korean popular songs.


She married Kim Hae-song, a singer, composer and a conductor, in 1937. The couple had seven children, including Sook-ja Kim and Ai-ja Kim of The Kim Sisters. During the Korean War, the family lost their home in the bombing, and further more Kim Hae-song was captured and killed by the North Korean army. To earn money, Lee and her children sang for the American troops. She later performed in Busan nightclubs with her oldest daughters, Young-ja and Sook-ja. She died in 1965 in Seoul, and is buried in Lee Nan-young Park in Samhakdo, Mokpo.[9]

References: Duffy, Michael (October 6, 2013). "Hallyu in the Sixties". The Korea Times. Retrieved April 20, 2016. Park Jeong-ho (February 5, 2016). "Origins of Korean pop". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved April 20, 2016. Park Si-soo (October 31, 2013). "Roots of K-pop". The Korea Times. Retrieved April 19, 2016.

Choi Seong-hwan (March 30, 2006). "항구의 딸로 목포에서 태어나다". Oh My News (in Korean). Retrieved April 20, 2016. Teszar, David (September 21, 2011). "From Seoul to Las Vegas: story of the Kim Sisters". The Korea Times. Retrieved April 20, 2016. "Girl Groups in Korean Pop Music History". KBS World Radio. May 29, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2016. Bahk Eun-ji (March 24, 2016). "History of K-pop girl bands (from 1930s to present)". The Korea Times. Retrieved April 19, 2016.

https://books.google.com.ua/... Lee Joo-hee (March 30, 2010). "Embracing pain, looking ahead in Mokpo". The Korea Herald. Retrieved April 20, 2016.​

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Lee Nan-Young Born June 6, 1916 ~ April 11, 1965


The story tells that she grew up in a difficult famiy situation and also did not succeed to graduate school. At age 15 she joined being an actress on stage from 1930 onwards. In 1932, while still with a theatre troupe she had started to sing and was given her stage name.


A break through came with the song “Tears of Mokpo” (Lee Nan Young & SP Orchestra), recorded in 1935 a song that still is considered a classic. Later in the 60s it was covered by Blue Bells with the duo Young Lee and Hoon Lee Moon. The song is about a woman on a cold Saturday suffering silently in pain. It was a suffering that people associated with a difficult to change situation during the Japanese occupation days.

From the 3000 films made across the country, the song “Tears of Mokpo” had been selected as the people’s favourite. It was released on Melody Orchestra records. The vocal technique used in it reminded people of sobbing and showed relation to the p’ansori style and rhythms of the province of Eseona. It also expresses the soul of the Han people’s resistance against Japanese occupation. One can count at least a 5 million copies of the song being printed since its debut, it also can be found on numerous CD’s. It also popular in Japan too where it literally should mean “Ranko Oka” 岡 蘭 子 but is in fact known as 李 蘭 影., Jeollanam-Do.


Other original songs one writes had jazz-full influences and a youthful atmosphere and several had been composed by her husband Kim Hae Song. Until 1943, she mostly worked as a cover singer. She recorded many more songs on the Okay records label.


Her husband (who appeared in two movies) died very young. With the outbreak of the war in 1950, she had a difficult life raising their children alone. From here the translations become a bit unclear and the stories differ. One source says she started drinking after that and finally died at age 49 from alcohol poisoning. Elsewhere it states she moved to the States in 1963 and died there of a heart attack.


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http://gayomuseum.egloos.com/6395398 :


“사공의 뱃노래 가물거리고/삼학도 파도 깊이 숨어드는데/부두의 새악씨 아롱 젖은 옷자락/이별의 눈물이냐 목포의 설움...”

-일제 하인 1935년에 발표된 문일석 작사, 손목인 작곡, 이난영 노래, '목포의 눈물' 1절 가사이다.

'목포의 눈물'은 일제 하 우리 민족의 '망향가'였고 해방 후에는 설움 받는 호남인들의 '시름가'였다. 그리고 민주투쟁의 연대에는 장렬히 산화한 열사들에 대한 남도인의 '진혼가'이기도 했다.

이 노래는 목포시민, 그리고 호남인들의 삶과 함께 했다.

이 노래는 마치 세발낙지처럼 입에 착 달라붙어 힘들고 슬플 때, 그리고 기쁘고 즐거울 때도 '목포의 눈물'은 어김없이 함께 했고 또 지금도 함께 하고 있다.

1934년 조선일보사는 일제의 갖은 탄압 속에 위협받던 우리 민족의 고유한 정서를 북돋우기 위한 문화사업의 하나로 당시 Okeh레코드사와 손잡고, 향토노래가사를 공모했고 여기서 목포의 무명시인 문일석(文一石, 본명 윤재희/1916~1942)의 작품 '목포의 노래'가 3천여 통의 응모작 중 영예의 1등으로 당선되었다.

애절한 별리의 한을 담은 이 '목포의 노래'를 Okeh레코드사 사장 이철은 '목포의 눈물'로 제목을 바꾸어 작곡가 손목인에게 작곡을 의뢰했고 당시 목포 출신의 19세 소녀가수, 이난영(1916~1965) 에게 부르도록 했다.

'목포의 눈물'은 우리 가요로서는 최초로 일본어로도 취입되어 일본에서도 히트했다.

이 노래로 가수 이난영은 목포를 상징하는 동시에 가요계의 '불멸의 여왕(女王)'으로 군림하게 된다.

'난영가요제' 그리고 '목포가요제'의 모티브가 된 가수 이난영은 1916년 6월 6일, 철공업을 하던 부친 이남순(李南順)과 모친 박소아 (朴小兒) 사이에서 목포부 양동 72번지에서 태어나 1965년 4월 11일 새벽 서울 회현동 자택에서 마흔 아홉 나이에 파란 많은 인생을 마감하였다.

필자는 몇 년 전 그의 주검을 처음 발견했던 이로부터 실로 충격적인 증언을 들었는데 그 자세한 언급은 이 글에서는 피하기로 한다.

‘난영(蘭影)’은 가수로 활동하기 시작하면서 지은 예명, 본명은 ‘옥순(玉順)’, 이후 ‘옥례(玉禮)’로 개명한다.

故 이난영 여사를 추모하기 위해 그녀의 사후 3년 뒤인 1968년부터 '난영가요제'가 호남매일신문사 주최로 열리게 되었고 또한 '목포의 눈물' 노래비가 유달산 중턱, 목포 시가지와 삼학도 그리고 다도해가 한 눈에 내려다보이는 곳에 세워져 있다.

1969년 6월 10일 목포악기점을 운영하던 박오주에 의해 세워진 이 노래비는 우리나라 최초로 대중가요 노래비 제1호로서 의미도 함께 지니고 있다. 앞면 ‘목포의 눈물’ 가사와 그 아래 ‘살아있는 보석은 눈물입니다. 남쪽하늘 아래 꿈과 사랑의 열매를 여기 심습니다. 이난영의 노래가 문일석 가사 손목인 작곡으로 여기 청호의 넋처럼 빛나고 있습니다.’라는 추모 글이 새겨져 있다.

그러나 이 노래비는 작곡자 누락, 가사 오류 등으로 크고작은 잡음을 불러일으키기도 했다.

호남매일신문사 주관으로 1968년부터 시작된 '난영가요제'는 한 때 중단되었다가 1991년부터 목포 MBC 주관으로 다시 전통가요의 맥을 잇기 위한 수레를 돌리기 시작했으며 또한 1989년부터는 KBS에서도 이난영의 맥을 잇는 '목포가요제'를 매년 개최, 현재까지 이어오고 있다.

현재 목포시에서는 '난영기념관' 건립도 추진 중이다. 故 이난영 여사를 추모하고 신인가수를 발굴하기 위해 23회 째를 맞게 되는 '난영가요제'와 16회 째를 맞고 있는 '목포가요제'는 각각 MBC와 KBS, 양대 방송사를 통해 전국에 중계되기 때문에 가수가 되기 위한 등용문으로서의 역할이 더욱 기대된다.

매년 150명~200명의 지망생이 각각 몰리는 이 대회에 입상하면 상장과 상금, 그리고 한국연예인협회에서 가수 인증서를 받게 된다. 대한민국이 인정한 정식 가수가 되는 것이다.

이 대회를 통해 가수 최유나, 이정옥, 아랑, 듀엣 오즈의 신은정, 이하린, 김상민, 홍성남, 송광호, 그리고 최근 화제의 가수 춘자, 국악가수 김산옥 등도 이 대회를 통해 배출되었다.

제2, 제3의 이난영을 꿈꾸는 가수들을 발굴하기 위한 대회로 난영가요제, 목포가요제는 계속 출전곡을 이난영의 곡으로만 규정하는 것은 그 가요제의 성격과 취지를 분명히 한다는 점에서 일단 수긍할 수 있다. 그러나 한편, 이난영이 발표한 노래만으로 레퍼토리를 제한함으로써 보다 다양한 재능을 가진 가수를 발굴하는데 한편 장애가 되지는 않는지, 한번쯤 검토해봐야 하지 않을까 생각된다.

사실 이난영이 발표한 노래들은 그렇게 다양한 장르를 가지고 있지는 않기 때문이다. 아울러 지난 해 목포가요제에선 남자 출연자의 경우 남진과 나훈아 곡으로만 참가곡을 제한한 것 또한 우려할만한 대회 규정으로 반드시 재검토해야할 사항이 아닌가 여겨진다.

조선중기 문인 윤선도, 남농 허건, 의제 허백련을 비롯, 우리나라의 대표적인 문인, 예술인, 대중가수 등 걸출한 예술인들이 다른 어떤 고장 못지않게 많이 배출해냈고 지금도 풋풋하고 넉넉한 인심이 살아 있는 목포, 나라 잃은 민족의 한을 노래한 '목포의 눈물'의 이 고장에서 전국적인 규모의 가요제 행사가 두 개씩이나 매년 함께 열리고 있다는 사실은 매우 고무적인 일이다.

글/박성서 (대중음악평론가, 저널리스트)


- Copyrights ⓒ 韓國歌謠作家協會報 2005. 3월

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Rough translation (with still several mistakes):


Being a servant under Japanese rule Il-seok wrote the lyrics for Tempo Tears in 1935, with Lee Nan-young singing. They were a product of being under Japanese rule, and therefore such poems were despised after the liberation. Never the less is was about the lives of Mokpo citizens and Honam people. It is like something is stuck inside, people are still happy being together. In 1934, the Chosun Ilbo joined the Okeh Record Company and invited a local song lyrics as one of the cultural projects to encourage the unique sentiment of our nation, a sentiment which was threatened by the suppression of Japanese imperialism, where Moon Il-seok (文一石, real name Yoon Jae-hee) / 1916 ~ 1942), with 'Song of Mokpo', won the honor of the 3,000 entries. Okeh Records CEO Lee Chul changed the title to 'The Tears of Mokpo', and asked the composer's wristwatcher to compose a song of Mokpo's sadness. The 19-year-old singer, Lee Nan-young (1916 ~ 1965) did the performance of it. Mokpo's Tears was the first Korean song ever to be taken in Japanese and was a hit in Japan.

With this song, singer Lee Nan-young symbolizes Mokpo and reigns as the immortal queen of the music industry.


Singer Lee Nan-young, who became the motive for the 'Nanyoung Song Festival' and 'Mokpo Song Festival', was born on June 6, 1916, in Namdong, Mokpo-bu, with father Lee Nam-soon and mother Park So-ah. At the age of forty years old, at the age of forty-nine on April 11, she ended her sad life.I've heard a shocking testimony from someone who first discovered her remains a few years ago, but I'll avoid that in this article.


'Nanyoung (蘭影)' was renamed 'Eungsun (玉順)', followed by 'Oksun (玉 禮)' and 'Orye (玉 禮)'.위해 To commemorate Ms. Lee Young-young, since 1968, three years after her death, 'Nanyoung Song Festival' was hosted by Honam Daily Newspaper, and the song 'Tear of Mokpo' was overlooked at the middle of Yudalsan Mountain, Mokpo City, Samhakdo, and the Tea Ceremony. It is built in a visible place.


Established by Park O-ju, who ran Mokpo Musical Instruments on June 10, 1969, this song ratio has the meaning as the first popular song song number 1 in Korea. On the front side is the tears of Mokpo and the living gems below are tears. The fruit of dreams and love is planted here under the southern sky. Lee's song is a song composed by Moon Il-suk's efforts and shines like the soul of Cheong-ho. However, the song cost caused loud and small noises due to missing composers and lyrics errors.


The 'Nanyoung Song Festival', which was started in 1968 under the leadership of Honam Daily Newspaper, was once discontinued, and since 1991, Mokpo MBC has begun to turn the wagon to connect the traditional song. The Mokpo Song Festival is held every year and continues to this day.


Mokpo City is also promoting the construction of the 'Nanyoung Memorial Hall'. 23 In order to commemorate Ms. Lee Young-young and discover new artists, the 23rd `` Nanyoung Song Festival '' and 16th `` Mokpo Song Festival '' are broadcasted nationwide through MBC, KBS, and both major broadcasters. It is expected to play a role as an open door to the future.


Each year, 150 to 200 inquirers will be awarded a prize, a prize, and a singer's certificate from the Korean Entertainment Association. It is to become a full singer recognized by the Republic of Korea.


Singer Choi Youna, Lee Jung-ok, Arang, Shin Eun-jeong of Duet Oz, Lee Ha-rin, Kim Sang-min, Hong Sung-nam, Song Kwang-ho, and recently talked about singer Chun-ja and Korean traditional singer Kim San-ok were also taken off there.


It is a contest to discover singers who dream of becoming the 2nd and 3rd Lee Nan-young. The Nanyoung Song and Mokpo Song Festival can be accepted in that defining the song as only the song of Lee Nan-young makes clear the nature and purpose of the song. On the other hand, by limiting the repertoire to only the songs released by Lee Young-young, one would like to find also a singer with more diverse talents.


In fact, the songs released by Lee Nan-young do not have such diverse genres. In addition, last year's Mokpo Song Festival limited male songs to Nam Jin and Na Hoon Ah's songs.


In the mid Joseon period, outstanding artists such as Yoon Sun-do, Nam Nong Hugan, Agenda Hur Baek-Ryun, Korea's leading literary artists, artists, and popular singers have produced as much as any other troubles. It is very encouraging that two national music festivals are held together every year in this song of the tears of Mokpo."


Written by Park Sung-seob (pop critic, journalist).

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Taken from Embedded Voices In Between Empires, Yongwoo Lee:

"From the mid 1930s, the dominant cultural forms of jazz and popular song Yuhaengga recordings (Yuhaengga is Korean term for popular song, a translation of the Japanese wod ryūkōka) tended to oscillate between developments from western and Japanese trends, which provided the dominant influences on jazz and popular music in colonial Korea. There was an influx of multiple and diverse popular forms, and genres such as jazz, blues, nonsense songs, enka, rumba and tango continued to proliferate until 1937, when Japan began to launch propaganda campaigns announcing that Koreans should think of Japan and Korea as united in a single body (naisenittai), and to regard their Korean selves as a part of a greater national entity (kokugo). The emergence of jazz in the mid-to-late 1930s in colonial Korea involved to a large extent musician-celebrities such as Lee Nan-Young, Lee Erisu, Kim Hae-song, Lee Jae-Ho, Wang Su-Bok and Che Gyu-Yup, who appropriated and copied the rhythms, chords and vocal styles of western compositions and performances. In a musical terms, appropriation is often considered ―a kind of betrayal of origins, where ―musicians perceived as copying other musicians‘ styles or inflections are ―associated with an assumed exploitation of weaker or subservient social or ethnic groups by more dominant and powerful groups as the appropriation of Black-American musical forms by white musicians, (Mitchell 1996:8). However, in the Korean context, mimicry and the appropriation of jazz and other western or Japanese music genres by colonial musicians and composers increased the subjective sense of the present and crystallized cultural perceptions regarding colonial circumstances, acting as a symbolic and ritual means of consuming western modernity, morals and values systems through the appropriation of hip jazz songs, while also incorporating indigenous elements to preserve Korean sentiments and traditional values in the form of a new kind of traditional folksong, Shinminyo.


However, Korea‘s cross-cultural dilemma illustrates a displaced western modernity shared by and filtered through the imagination of the Japanese colonizer. Thus the use of jazz as means of both consuming western vanity and indirectly counteracting the Japanese modernization was also reflected in the Korean popular songs. With the advent of jazz culture, youngsters‘ accommodation of western culture through jazz songs and the trendiness of the middle class consumption phonograph records empowered and homogenized these unidentifiable exotic western sounds as commercial commodities that could act as an ―oppositional and liberational signifier,‖ as Gilroy puts it (Gilroy 1991:9). Gilroy describes ―an overarching ‗Afro-centrism‘ which can be read as inventing its own totalizing conception of black culture. This new ethnicity is all the more powerful because it corresponds to no actually-existing black communities.‖ Thus colonial Koreans‘ imaginative relationship with jazz strengthened the idea of America and American culture and communities as a genuine and even utopic modernity, geared by the commodity fetishism of jazz records and modern technologies such as the gramophone and radio transistor.


Despites its popularity, many critics and conservative Koreans considered jazz a serious threat to the nation‘s morale, blaming it for supposedly implicitly welcoming rebellious behavior and producing an evil influence at home that could result in immorality or even dementia. Critics of the domestic play of phonograph records brought up issues regarding the wife‘s use of ―sane, sound‖ music at home. As Park elucidates, ―singing a vulgar song at home is an unpleasant thing. Clean and cheerful songs have to be played at home by utilizing radio programs to expel vulgar popular songs… Currently, many military songs and patriotic songs are played at home, which is a very stimulating fact. Having cheerful and immaculate songs at home is equivalent to having a sound and noble home. Since women, who played phonographs during the day while their husbands and children were away, dominated the market for phonograph records, the discourses of popular music selection, purchase and appreciation of recorded music were focused on the housewives of colonial Korea alongside articulations of Chonghu (home front) identity.


Meanwhile, the Charleston, one of the modern dances associated with jazz music, ignited the popularity of jazz for the Mobo and Moga. The jazzy gestures and the allure of American popular music under the suppressed colonial sovereignty quickly gained enormous popularity amongst colonial youngsters. Younger generations were ―desperately looking for a good Charleston player [as long as he/she can expertly dance to Charleston], they don‘t care even if it‘s Negro,‖75 which challenges dominant social morals. By appropriating alternative colonial narratives by consuming western culture as a means of sustaining emancipatory impulses, the colonial subject mimicked western attitudes by consuming modern symbol-jazz, and, at the same time, the appropriation of western culture in this younger generation also embraced the idea of a ―strategic reversal of the process of domination that turns the (colonizers‘) gaze of the discriminated back upon the eye of power by destabilizing colonial authority and challenging traditional morals in accommodating the febrile jazz craze as a subversive narrative.


The first poll vis-à-vis the most popular singer in Korea (figure 2-7) displays the popularity of phonograph records—the supplementary prize was a gramophone, as shown on the left—and the degrees of public preference for the singers at the time. Over ten thousand people participated in the poll to choose the most popular singer in Korea in September 1935,77 evidence of the enormous public interest in this music. Meanwhile, various phonograph records issued in the 12-inch, 78 rpm (revolutions per minute) format changed the music business following the popularity of phonograph record consumption and the new dance crazes along with blues and Jazz genre."

........

"Despite these various progressive constructions, many critics portray the time of the Total War as a period of cultural darkness by designating it as a period of cultural rupture in popular Korean music history (Lee 1998, Park 2007, Park 2009). The production and consumption of popular music in this era has been enveloped in this discourse of cultural blackout, particularly because people had to cope with Japanese militarism, contend with the exigencies of the stark conditions of the homefront and discourses of self-sacrificing for the Empire. The phonographs from the Total War era have never been completely published, re-recorded, archived or engaged with in intellectual discourses. How can the discourse of popular music during the late Japanese colonial occupation be defined and understood beyond this bifurcated category of pro-Japanese patriotism, involving both the conflict against war trauma and collective sentiments in opposition to the possibility of polymorphous identities?*


* In fact, there has been and still are several intense on-going discussions on the categorization of pro-Japanese activity and the aftermath of the unresolved history of the late Japanese occupation era in the popular music scene. For example, a popular music festival that pays tribute to singer Nam Insoo was heavily criticized by a nationalist organization named the Institute for Research in Collaboration Activities, (see here, since he contributed a song named ―Deep Gratitude of the Twenty Five Million (Icheonobaekman Gamgyeok, written by Cho Myeong-Am, composed by Kim Hae-Song, performed by Nam Insoo and Lee Nanyoung,1943) during the Total war era. Consequently, several singers and composers such as Cho Myeong-Am, Park Si-Choon and Baek Nyeon-Seol were also infamously categorized as pro-Japanese musicians. The issue unraveled on websites such as Ohmynews and Hopenews following the offensive and defensive claims of both nationalists and the fans of Nam. Due to hostile public opinion against perceived pro-Japanese activity, the name of the festival was changed, named after the birth place of the singer‘s hometown to the Jinju Popular Music Festival in 2006.


-Carioca* is the first rumba popular song labelled as ―jazz song,performed by Kim Hae-song and Lee Nan-Young. The B-side is blues song, ―Cheonggong,‖ which is a famous Japanese jazz song remake of ―Aosora,‖ (靑空) performed by Kim Hae-Song. Okeh Panphonic record, 1937.3. Thus, all the western-style songs were categorized as jazz song in colonial Korea by depending on Japanese selection and musical adaptation.



* Carioca, a term that also refers to the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro, is a ballroom dance genre, mixing Samba, Maxixe, Foxtrot, Rumba and Tap. It was performed in the movie Flying Down to Rio by Ginger Rogers for the first time. Carioca as a music genre was introduced in 1933, in a song composed by Vincent Youmans and written by Edward Eluscu and Gus Kahn and introduced in the move Flying Down to Rio. ―Carioca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." 4 August 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carioca_(song)>.

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From https://www.academia.edu/793783/New_Folksongs_Shin_Minyo_of_the_1930s


Songs such as ‘Pom mach’i/Greeting the Spring’, he says, used metaphor to express emotions that were often-suppressed: winter (kyôul) refers to the occupation and the melting of ice to its ending, spring (pom) stands for Korean liberation (Kim 2000: 91). The song, composed by Mun Howôl with lyrics by Yu Sôkchung, was recorded in 1934 by Yi Nanyông:

The ice melts and the water rushes

As the water flows winter passes away

Let’s go out and greet the spring.

At the riverside a weeping willow

Drooping with a silly snicker

Writes a spring letter in the rushing water

Ôhôyadûya ôhôûri!

Let’s go for it and greet the spring.

A pair of swallows kick up water

While flying in fast

Ôhôyadûya ôhôûri!

Let’s go for it and greet the spring.

(1992: SYNCD-016; my translation)

Subtle and not so subtle references to the occupation were not uncommon. In the third verse of ‘Nodûl kangbyôn/Nodûl Riverside’, an explicit reference to the occupation’s hardships appears, when the wasted lives of those who have been displaced and those who have died is mentioned. Ch’oe Ch’angho comments that ‘The melody, through a combination of popular and [traditional] rhythms that anyone could easily recognize, reeks of a unique national spirit. Moreover, in the third verse feelings of resistance flow that oppose the hardships and misery put on our countrymen for which the Japanese occupation is the root’ (2000: 34). The expression of Korean sentiment emerges from the mixture of lyrical reference, musical allusion and historical context.

and


"These Lacanian symptom/Sinthomes for the new world and the ephemeral ecstasy of emancipation were represented by various popular singers, either those who served the Japanese empire and were reluctantly mobilized to make sycophantic songs praising Japanese militarism during the Asia-Pacific War, or those diasporic popular singers who were expatriated to the foreign countries, mainly scattered in America and mainland Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Beijing and Manchuria.193 Narratives of popular music lyrics were also divided between those by repatriated popular singers from foreign countries extolling the glory of Korean liberation such as Hyun-In in ―Leoki Seoul” (Lucky Seoul, 1947) and Lee In-Gwon in ―Gwuiguksun” (Homecoming Cruise), or the local singers engaged in vaudeville shows such as as Kim Hae-song, Lee Nan-Young and Nam In-Soo, who crooned in elegiac empathy and sentimentalism for the national partition and alienation. The cultural spectrum, from local Korean musicians who underwent the colonial experience to the repatriated diasporic singers who underwent immigration, was molded into various expressions and sentiments to cast the Korean point of view into popular songs."


and


"..the reason for the Japanese affection for Enka207 is that, first, it rehumanizes the modern audience by returning them to their own emotional ―wetness,‖ by narrating more personal and intimate details of their lives, and secondly, enka can specifically explain the Japanese sentiments (Yano 2002). For similar reasons, Korean popular songs are commonly called Gayo in Korean, build upon processes of nostalgically-framed sentiments and expressions which can serve as a displacement of collective remembering and forgetting. According to the research of Kim Jeom-Do (2001), the most frequently performed Korean popular songs on the Gayomudae program were created between 1940 and the 1950s, as follows:


Tears in Mokpo, Lee Nan-Young

What constraints does the colonial experience establish around popular song narratives during the post-liberation era? How do popular songs‘ relations to social contexts exacerbate the national ―collective ethos‖ of this specific era? The production of cultural memory through popular songs in this period is historically situated by generating recollections through voices tangled with historical incidents, such as the shift from the schizophrenic exhilaration of national liberation, capturing moments of longing and yearning and the excruciating sense of national separation and alienation accompanying the 38th military demarcation. "...


and


"The offspring of the famous Kim Hae-Song (composer and singer) and Lee Nan-Young (singer),are the Kim sisters, composed of three female vocalists Sook-ja, Mi-a and Ai-ja Kim.*


Kim Hae-song (Korean; 1911 - 1950) is a classical music conductor and popular music composer killed by the North Koreans during the Korean War. Lee Nan-Young (Korean, 1916 - 1967) is legendary popular singer during Japanese occupation era. "

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One song, ‘ Nae kohyangûl ibyôlhago/Farewell To My Hometown’, tells of a person who has left their hometown to live elsewhere, using words such as ‘suffocating’ and ‘lonely’ to describe their mood. From their perspective, as we hear the song, the hometown becomes a distant, idealized place that is missed. Individual and family displacement during the occupation can be associated with this feeling of alienation from one’s identity so firmly rooted in the hometown, and many who heard the song would have related to its theme during a time of tremendous social and cultural upheaval. Kim considers that the ‘ shin minyo effort’ was entwined with abstract concepts such as the people’s sentiment or spirit, with song themes that spoke of hardship. Songs such as ‘ Pom mach’ i/ Greeting the Spring’, he says, used metaphor to express emotions that were often-suppressed: winter (kyôul ) refers to the occupation and the melting of ice to its ending, spring ( pom) stands for Korean liberation (Kim 2000: 91). The song, composed by Mun Howôl with lyrics by Yu Sôkchung, was recorded in 1934 by Yi Nanyông:


The ice melts and the water rushes As the water flows winter passes away Let’s go out and greet the spring. At the riverside a weeping willow Drooping with a silly snicker Writes a spring letter in the rushing water Ôhôyadûya ôhôûri! Let’s go for it and greet the spring. A pair of swallows kick up water While flying in fast Ôhôyadûya ôhôûri! Let’s go for it and greet the spring. (1992: SYNCD-016; my translation)


Subtle and not so subtle references to the occupation were not uncommon. In the third verse of ‘ Nodûl kangbyôn/Nodûl Riverside’, an explicit reference to the occupation’s hardships appears, when the wasted lives of those who have been displaced and those who have died is mentioned. Ch’oe Ch’angho comments that ‘The melody, through a combination of popular and [traditional] rhythms that anyone could easily recognize, reeks of a unique national spirit. Moreover, in the third verse feelings of resistance flow that oppose the hardships and misery put on our countrymen for which the Japanese occupation is the root’ (2000: 34).


The expression of Korean sentiment emerges from the mixture of lyrical reference, musical allusion and historical context. The lyrical imagery and the instruments used provide listeners with clues of the music’s identity, but the performer’s vocal style is similar to that of other popular genres of the time. The vocal styles of folksongs were dependant on the region, singers of central Kyônggi minyo using a slightly nasal vocalization with elaborate ornamentation and singers of southwestern Namdo minyo utilizing more earthy and emotional voices. Despite these stylistic differences, the strong and rich vocal qualities of traditional folksongs stand out against the rather thin and weak vocal quality of popular singers in the 1930s, from which shin minyo singers differed little. Very few ingers actually specialized in shin minyo, with only a handful known as shin minyo performers; many also recorded songs in other genres. They became associated with the genre when a song they recorded became a hit. For example, Kim Yonghwan, a singer who began his career on stage, recorded ‘Sum swinûn pudu/Living (or Thriving) Wharf ’ in 1933, and after that wrote and sang several songs classed within the shin minyo category. Kim Pokhûi worked for Victor Records and others, but with the recording of ‘ Paektusan agassi/Paektu Mountain Girl’ became quite a star. Yi Kyunam recorded many ‘new popular songs’ ( shin kayo) for Columbia into the 1940s.11 Sôn Uilsôn worked for Polydor, Victor, and T’aep’yông Records, recording one of the earliest songs labeled as shin minyo, ‘ Kkoch’ûl chapk ’ o/With Flowers in Hand’ for Polydor. Yi Aerosu (also known as Yi Aerisu) worked with Victor Records and is known for singing ‘ Nim maji kaja/[Let’s] Go Meet [My] Love’. Wang Subok (Wang Sôngshil) was trained in the singing of literati songs (kasa and shijo) and recorded with Columbia and Polydor records, becoming known as a shin minyo singer when she recorded ‘Ulji marayo/Don’t Cry’ although she also performed more traditional folksongs such as ‘ Nilliriya’ and ‘ Kin arirang ’ .


Amongst these, Wang was the exception: Ch’oe Ch’angho remarks that folksong singers distanced themselves from shin minyo performance, feeling uncomfortable with what they considered to be a musical hodgepodge (2000:53). Their discomfort may have been coloured by their distaste for performing music that was not pure folksong, but their absence from the ranks of those who sang shin minyo contributed, Ch’oe says, to the decline of the shin minyo genre. Shin minyo was a phenomenon of its time. The attraction it had for audiences of the 1930s made it this, but also contributed to its stagnation. For scholars, the difficulty of examining shin minyo is that there is no clearly defined account of it. There were, even within the recording companies, no organizations of composers or management associations. As Ch’oe notes, its seemingly spontaneous appearance leaves little evidence of a solid existence (2000: 52), and the lack of information plays a part in disrupting the potential momentum of shin minyo as a part of Korean popular culture. The most significant factor is that the genre could not reach its full potential in the world; it was lost in the shuffle, disdained by traditional folksong performers and lost to the popular appeal of yuhaengga. In short, shin minyo failed to thrive in the rapidly developing context of Korea. Hence, when I ask my Korean contemporaries about shin minyo, many turn up their noses and say: ‘That’s old people’s music’. The majority of Koreans I’ve spoken to know little about the genre, but all associate it with the occupation era. Shin minyo, though, is also a phenomenon of contemporary Korea, a Korea emerging from Third World economy to international player, from feudalism to democracy. While it fell out of favour and fashion, it remains relevant for three reasons. First is its status as a pioneering popular music, along with other genres of its time, setting the stage for the burgeoning Korean recording industry. One can almost see shin minyo as a marketing experiment, since it was one of the first recorded conscious attempts at creating and promoting a Korean, albeit hybrid, musical genre. Second is the emphasis on shin minyo’s extra-musical character: some contend it not only served as a representation of the Korean spirit but also provided a forum for meaningful cultural expression. Third, while shin minyo may have lost its place as a favourite among the listening public, it remains one of the original efforts at revising an old music to fit contemporary tastes. Not until the 1960s was another attempt mounted to revise traditional forms and emphasize Korean music’s communicative value for the Korean spirit.


from New Folksong: Shin Minyo of the 1930s Hilary Finchum-Sung

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From Globalisation and popular music in South Korea, Michael Fuhr, Routledge, 2016:


"The subject of t'urot'u songs was always defeated by the cold and hard reality of a world full of impossibilities and was always denied fulfillments of basic human desires, and has thus become a metaphor for the nation's desperation under colonial reality (Hwang 2005, 46)." Typical examples are Lamentation of Separation by Ko Poksu in 1934 and Tears of Mokpo Port sung by Lee Nan-Yong in 1935. In addition to melancholic lyrics, both songs contain regular 4/4 meter (in contrast to the 3/4 meter of earlier popular and folk songs), minor pentatonic scale and a vocal style with heavy inflections, which together represent the standard characteristics of t'trot'u from the mid-1930s until the 1950s (Lee, 2006a,4)."


see also http://blog.daum.net/...

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From Daum 블로그


Ⅰ. 들어가며

한국전쟁의 상처가 채 아물기 전인 1957년 이난영은 일제시기 부터 레코드회사 동료였으며 수없이 많은 공연에 함께 출연했던 가수 고복수의 은퇴공연 무대에 섰다. 당시 이 공연을 기념하여 마련된 KBS 라디오 프로그램의 녹음자료가 남아 있는데, 여기에 이난영의 육성이 포함되어 있다. 녹음자료에서 이난영은 고복수와의 추억담을 말해달라는 사회자의 요청을 받은 뒤, 다음과 같이 자신의 소회를 풀어놓았다.

네, 고선생님과 저와는 잊을래야 잊을 수 없고, 또… 지금으로부터 27년 전 저는 고선생님보다 1년 먼저 앞서 오케레코드 회사에 입사했었습니다. 1년 후에 고선생님을 만나 뵙고 무대에서 같이 노래도 같이 했었고 지금 마흔 고개가 넘어서 같이 늙은 셈이죠. 오늘에 와서 고선생님의 은퇴공연을 볼 때, 저는 단지 가슴이 벅차고 눈물만 앞서서 울고만 싶은 생각밖에 아무 생각이 없습니다. [*잠시 울먹거림] 좋은 벗을 무대에서 잃어버린 것 같고 제 자신도 앞으로 무대 생활을 얼마 생명이 남지 않은 그런 기분이 들어서… 옛날만 새로워지고 옛날 추억이 그립습니다. 일본에 건너갔었을 때 고선생님이 여러 우리 동포들 앞에서 장구를 메고 그 신이 나게 칠 때 재일동포들은 얼마나 감격했으며 그때 시절을 지금 생각하면 오늘 시공관 무대에서 다시 그 시절로 다시 돌아가는 그 기분이 새로워집니다. 저는 요새 건강이 좋지 않아서 고선생님 은퇴공연에 출연 못할까봐 제일 걱정했습니다만, 다행히 죽지 않고 오늘의 마지막 무대를 같이 서게 된 것을 제일 기쁘게 생각하는 동시에 [*다시 울먹거리기 시작] 오늘 방송도 마지막으로 생각할 때 저는 단지 감개무량할 뿐입니다. 이것으로 고선생님 앞으로 저희들을 떠나시더라도 잊지 마시고 마음만은 변치 말아 주셨으면 제일 감사하게 생각하겠습니다. 우리 동지 대표로서 제가 고선생님께 감사의 말씀을 드리는 바입니다. 1

곧바로 이난영은 사회자의 곡 소개와 함께 <목포의 눈물>을 부르는데, 1절을 부른 뒤 격한 슬픔의 감정에 휩싸인 그녀는 2절에서는 노래를 제대로 이어가지 못한 채 계속 흐느꼈다. 방송사고나 다름없었던 이날의 무대에서 이난영은 결국 옆자리에 있던 고복수의 도움으로 힘겹게 노래를 마칠 수 있었다. 이난영의 <목포의 눈물>이 이보다 더 슬프게 불러진 적이 있었을까?

그런데 이난영은 이 무대에서 왜 그토록 주체할 수 없는 슬픔을 느꼈던 걸까? 동료가수의 은퇴라는 사실이 주는 충격과 지난 인생에 대한 회한이 그 원인이었을 법하다. 하지만, 이난영은 매우 어린 나이에 데뷔했던지라 1957년 당시에도 이제 막 40대에 접어든 젊은 나이였다. 동료가수의 은퇴공연에서 으레 느꼈을 법한 감상적(感傷的) 소회라고 하기에는 그 감정이 과잉의 상태에 치닫고 있다는 느낌을 지우기 어렵다.

대중의 사랑을 받는 한 사람의 가수이기 이전에 한 인간으로서 이난영이 가졌을 슬픔의 감정을 온전히 헤아리는 것은 물론 쉽지 않은 일이다. 6・25 동란에 남편 김해송을 잃은 이후 7남매의 생계를 책임지면서 남편이 이끌던 악극단을 대신 운영하다가 실패를 거듭했고, 그 와중에도 어린 딸들을 훈련하여 연예계에 성공적으로 입문시키는 등 당시 그녀는 물질적으로나 정신적으로나 힘겨운 생활을 이어가고 있었다. 설상가상 약물중독과 알콜중독 증상으로 건강 또한 악화되어 있었던 것으로 보인다.

이난영의 또 다른 동료가수였던 남인수가 그녀에게 손을 내밀었던 것도 이 무렵부터인데 기혼자였던 그가 불륜의 관계 맺기를 불사했던 것도 오랜 음악 동료의 자기파괴적 우울증에 깊은 동정을 느꼈기 때문이었으리라 생각한다. 이미 폐결핵 증상을 보이던 남인수는 이난영의 슬픔과 육체적 고통에 동병상련으로 공감했을 것이다. 이난영 또한 연하의 기혼남이었던 남인수에게 의지하고 매달렸으며, 불치병을 앓고 있던 그를 헌신적으로 보살피기도 했다. 하지만 세간의 화제를 뿌리고 불륜에 대한 사회적 비난의 시선을 받으면서도 유지되던 이들의 끈끈한 관계 역시 1962년 남인수의 죽음으로 짧게 매듭지어졌다.

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Translation (with mistakes):


I. Intro In 1957, before the Korean War was healed, Lee Nan-young was a retirement performance by singer Ko Bok-soo, who was a colleague of record companies since the Japanese colonial period and appeared in countless performances. At the time, there was a recording of the KBS radio program in memory of this performance, which included Lee's upbringing. In the recording, Lee Nan-young received a request from a moderator to talk about his memories with Go Bok-soo.


Yes, I can't forget it that my teacher and me, twenty-seven years ago, I joined O'Record Company one year before Mr. Ko. A year later, I met Mr. Ko and sang together on stage, and now I'm over forty years old. When I see today's retirement performance, I have nothing but my heart and I want to cry ahead of tears. [pauses for a moment] I feel like I've lost my good friend on stage, and I myself feel like there's not much life left in the future. Only the old is renewed and the old memories are missed. When I went to Japan, Mr. Go was wearing a janggu in front of many Koreans and struck the gods, and how impressed the Koreans were when they thought about it now. I was most worried that I would not be able to appear in the retirement performance of Mr. Ko because of poor health, but fortunately, I was most pleased to be on the last stage of today without dying. It's just heavyweight. If you leave us in the future, please don't forget to change your mind. As a representative of our comrades, I would like to thank Mr. Go. One


Immediately, Lee Nan-young sings Mokpo's Tears along with the introduction of the song by the moderator. After singing verse 1, she was deeply saddened and mourned. On the stage of this day, which was like a broadcasting accident, Lee Nan-young was able to finish the song with the help of Go Bok-soo, who was next to him. Could Lee Nan-young's Tears of Mokpo have been called more sadly than this?


But why did Lee feel so sad that he could not control this stage? Perhaps it was the shock of the retirement of a fellow singer and the regret of his past life. However, Lee debuted at a very young age, and in 1957, she was just young. It's hard to say that the feelings are getting overwhelmed by the sentimental sensation that you might have felt in your retirement performance.


It is, of course, not easy to count the feelings of sadness that Lee Nan-young had as a human being before a singer loved by the public. After losing her husband Kim Hae-song during the June 25th Disaster, she failed to run her husband's troupe, leading her husband's livelihood, and trained her young daughters to enter the entertainment world successfully. Mentally difficult life was going on. To make matters worse, it seems that their health has also deteriorated due to drug and alcoholism symptoms.


It was also from this time that Nam In-soo, another fellow singer of Lee Nan-young, reached out to her, and it seems that he, who was married, was impressed with his long-standing music companion's self-destructive depression. Nam In-soo, who had already shown symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, may have resonated with Lee Na-young's sorrow and physical pain. Lee also relied on Nam In-soo, a younger married man, and devotedly cared for an incurable man. However, the sticky relations that were maintained despite the issue of social criticism of affairs after being spawned by public topics were also shortened by the death of Nam In-soo in 1962.

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같은 해12월에 이난영은 미국 연예계에서 성공한 딸들(김시스터즈)의 초청으로 미국에 가게 되는데, 이 초청 또한 남인수 사후 어머니의 우울증에서 위험신호를 감지한 딸들의 걱정에서 비롯된 것이었다. 딸들과 라스베가스의 무대에 함께 서기도 하고 유명한‘에드 설리번 쇼’에 출연하기도 한 그녀는(*참고글) 8개월여의 미국생활을 접고1963년8월 돌연 귀국한 뒤 한국내에서‘김보이스’ 등의 이름으로 연예활동하고 있었던 세 아들들의 음악적 전열을 정비하여 그 해11월에‘김브라더스’라는 이름으로 미국에 진출시킨다. 딸들의 성공을 현장에서 직접 목격한 어머니의 주도면밀한 가족 관리가 엿보이는 대목이다.

이제 한국에서 홀로 남은 것이나 다름없었던 이난영의 삶은 이후1년 남짓 유지되다가1965년4월11일 서울 회현동의 자택에서 마무리되었다. 사인은 공식적으로는‘심장마비’로 기록되었지만, 자살 가능성도 적지 않아 보인다. 어느 경우든 그녀의 죽음은 그녀가 겪었던 오랜 우울증 증상과 약물중독 등으로 얼룩진 피폐한 삶을 그림자처럼 드리우고 있다.

한 대중가수의 말년의 삶을 이렇듯‘슬픔’ 또는‘우울’이라는 감정적 측면에 주목하여 서술하는 것은 음악사에 대한 객관적 관찰을 소임으로 하는 음악학자의 글에서 기대되는 것은 아닐지도 모른다. 하지만, 공적 삶과 사적 삶이 뒤엉켜있는 가수와 같은 대중연예인들의 정서적 삶은 사회적 의미를 띠게 되는 경우가 종종 있다. 특히 그 주인공이 이난영과 같이 커다란 사회적 주목을 받은 이라면 더욱 그렇다.

애도 내지는 치유에 실패한 비정상적 슬픔의 지속 상태로서의 우울증과 멜랑콜리는 근대적 질병이다. 우울증은 공적 영역과 사적 영역의 분리, 나아가 자기의식의 심화과정에서 생기는 자기분열적 심리 상태이기 때문이다. 그것은 자기애의 왜곡된 형식이다. 2곧 자신의 일부로 여겼던 대상들의 상실을 곧 자기상실의 형태로 내면화하는 과잉의 자의식이 멜랑콜리와 우울증의 원인인 것이다. 대중들의 사랑을 받는 연예인들이 우울증에 걸리기 쉬운 것도 이 때문인데, 그들은 대체로 평범한 사람들보다 자기애가 강할 뿐만 아니라 대중들에 의해 표상되는 자신의 이미지들을 곧 자신의 일부로 받아들이기 쉽기 때문에 그러한 이미지가 상실될 때 곧 무의식적 자기상실로 연결되는 경향이 있는 것이다.

하지만, 이난영의 우울증상을 임상병리학적 수준에서 검토하는 것은 이 글의 목표에서 벗어나 있다. 이 논문에서 드러내 보이고 싶은 점은 대중예술가로서 이난영의 사적 욕망이 현실의 모순적 구조에 의해 왜곡 형성되거나 좌절되는 지점들이다. 급변하는 근대적 삶의 요구 속에서 이질적이고 중층화된 방식으로 호명된 이난영의 페르소나는 굴절을 거듭하여 마침내 자기분열에 이를 수밖에 없게 된다. 그것은 물론 그녀의 비극적인 개인사에 해당하는 일일 수 있지만, 그녀의 노래, 그리고 대중연예인으로서의 성공과 좌절의 과정은 식민지배와 남북분단, 그리고 전쟁으로 얼룩졌던 질곡의 한국 현대사에서 대중의 욕망이 움직여갔던 파행의 과정을 파편화된 형태로나마 은유적으로 재현해 보이고 있다.

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In December of the same year, Lee Nan-young went to the United States with the invitation of his successful daughters (Kim Sisters) in the US entertainment industry, which also originated from the worry of the daughters who detected a danger signal from her mother's depression after Nam In-soo's death. She has been on the stage in Las Vegas and has appeared on the famous Ed Sullivan show (* Reference) after 8 months of American life and suddenly returned to Korea in August 1963. The musical lineup of the three sons, who were performing in the name of the artist, was reorganized and entered the US under the name of Kim Brothers in November of that year. This is a glimpse of the mother's careful family management who witnessed the success of their daughters.


Lee Nan-young's life, which had been left alone in Korea, was maintained for more than a year, and he finished his home in Hoehyeon-dong, Seoul on April 11, 1965. The cause of death was officially recorded as a “heart attack,” but it does not seem suicidal. In either case, her death casts a shadowy life on her long list of depression and drug addiction.


It may not be expected in the writings of a music scholar whose objective observation of music history is to describe a popular singer's later life with sorrow or depression. However, the emotional life of popular celebrities, such as singers, in which public and private life are entangled, often take on a social meaning. Especially if the protagonist received great social attention like Lee Nan-young.


Depression and melancholy as a constant state of mourning or abnormal sorrow failing to heal are modern diseases. This is because depression is a self-dividing psychological state that arises from the separation of the public and private spheres, and furthermore, the deepening of self-consciousness. It is a distorted form of narcissism. 2 The excessive self-consciousness that internalizes the loss of objects that were considered part of oneself in the form of self-loss is the cause of melancholy and depression. This is the reason why celebrities loved by the public are more susceptible to depression, when they are lost because they are not only stronger than ordinary people, but also easily accept their own images represented by the public as part of them. It tends to lead to unconscious self-loss.


However, reviewing Lee's depression at the clinical and pathologic level is beyond the scope of this article. What I want to show in this paper is the point where Lee's personal desire as a pop artist is distorted or frustrated by the contradictory structure of reality. Named in a heterogeneous and stratified way in the rapidly changing demands of modern life, Lee's Persona has refractions that eventually lead to self-disruption. It may, of course, correspond to her tragic personal history, but her song, and the process of success and frustration as a public celebrity, are the lameness of the masses' desires in Korean modern history of colonial rule, division of North and South, and war. Its process is metaphorically reproduced in fragmented form.


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Ⅱ. 이난영과<목포의 눈물>

이난영이1932년경 고향인 목포 공연을 온 태양극단에 열여섯의 어린 나이로 입단했을 때, 그녀의 꿈은 가수보다는 배우였다. 하지만, 태양극단에서 그녀는 극단의 허드렛일을 하는 아이로 착취당하기 일쑤였다. 31930년대의 연극계는 유성영화 시대에 돌입하여 대중적 인기가 치솟아 오른 영화와 힘겨운 생존경쟁을 벌이고 있었다. 이 과정에서 극단들은 대중들의 흥미를 끌기 위한 막간(幕間)무대를 경쟁적으로 연출해냈고, 어린 이난영은 태양극단의 막간무대 가수로 처음 무대에 서게 된다. 4

태양극단의 막간무대에서 어린 이난영은 이미 재능을 발휘했던 것으로 보이지만, 극단은 그녀가 품고 있던 배우의 꿈을 실현시켜주지 못했다. 태양극단 소속으로 일본 오사카에 머물고 있던1933년 당시 그녀는 태평레코드사에 발탁이 되어<시드는 청춘>을 녹음함으로써 레코드가수로서의 데뷔를 하게 된다. 하지만, 이 시기 일본 방문중이던 오케레코드사의 이철 또한 그녀를 발탁하여 자기 회사의 전속가수로 계약을 맺게 됨으로써 이후로 이난영은1943년까지 오케레코드의 전속가수로서 활약하게 된다. 1933년과1934년 사이 오케레코드사에서 녹음 발표한<향수>, <불사조>, <고적> 등의 유행가들이 크게 히트하면서 이난영은1935년10월 대중잡지<삼천리>에서 실시한‘인기가수 투표’에서 여자가수 부문3위를 차지할 만큼 유명인의 반열에 오르게 된다.

1935년은 이난영의 대표곡인<목포의 눈물>이 녹음된 해이기도 한데, 이 노래를 취입하기 직전인8월에<삼천리>에 실린 이난영 인터뷰를 보면 그녀가 여전히 배우에 대한 동경을 가지고 있었음을 알 수 있다. 이 인터뷰에서 그녀는‘흠모하는 예술가’를 묻는 기자의 질문에 가수 대신 외국의 여배우 둘을 다음과 같이 꼽고 있다. “조선분들이야 어떻게 말씀하겠어요? 구레타 칼보(*그레타 가르보)와 入江たか子(*이리에 다카코)가 좋아요, 같은 동성으로는.”

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II. Lee Nan-young and <Tears of Mokpo>


When Lee Nan-young joined Mokpo, his hometown circa 1932, at the age of sixteen, she was an actor rather than a singer. However, at the Sun Company she was often exploited as a child doing extreme chores. 3 The theatrical world of the 1930's entered the era of meteorological films and struggled with the survival of the film, which had soared in popularity. In the process, the theater companies produced a competitive interlude stage to attract the public's interest, and young Lee Nan-young first appeared on the stage as an interlude stage singer of the solar company.


On the interlude stage of the solar company, young Lee Na-young seems to have already used his talents, but the troupe did not realize her dream of actress. In 1933, when she was in Osaka, Japan, she was selected by Taepyung Records to make her debut as a record singer by recording Sid's Youth. However, Lee Cheol, who was visiting Japan during this time, also selected her and signed her contract as an exclusive singer of her company. Popular trends such as perfume, phoenix and archaeological record, recorded by Ocher Records between 1933 and 1934, Lee Nan-young in the popular magazine `` Samcheonri '' in October 1935 He is one of the most famous celebrities in the female singer category.


1935 was also the year of Lee's representative song Mokpo's Tears, and in an interview published in Samchully in August just before the song was taken, I know that she still had a longing for the actor. Can be. In this interview, she cited two foreign actresses instead of a singer in a reporter's question asking an admiring artist: “How do you say it's Chosun? I like Gureta Calvo and Greta Garbo.


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이리에 다카코(入江たか子, 1911~1995). 1931년에 찍은 사진

Irie Takako (入 江 た か 子, 1911-1995). Picture taken in 1931.

미국 할리우드의 여배우 그레타 가르보는 말할 것도 없거니와 이리에 다카코와 같은 일본 여배우 또한‘서구적 여성상’을 재현하는 배우였다. 6여기서 이난영이 감수성 예민한10대의 시기부터 품고 있던 욕망이 향하고 있는 지점들을 짐작할 수 있다. 이것은 단순히 이난영 개인의 욕망이 아니라 이 시대 식민지 조선의‘모던걸’과‘모던보이’들의 욕망이기도 했다.

1930년대 식민지 조선의 음악 문화는 음반과 할리우드 영화와 같은“초국가적 매스 미디어를 매개로 하여 처음으로 일상문화의 층위에서‘글로벌’을 의식하기 시작했으며 그 글로벌한 상상력을 통해‘로컬’을 또한 인식했다.” 7이 시기 본격적인 도시 문화를 체험하기 전까지 조선인의 음악적 향수는 자신이 속한 물리적 공간에 한정되어 있었다. 다른 지역의 음악을 접하기란 거의 불가능했고, 설사 접한다 해도‘중심-변두리’의 구도를 설정할 수 있는 감성적 차원이 존재하지 않았다.

요컨대 이난영의<목포의 눈물>이 발표되고 불려졌던1930년대 중반의 시기는 식민지 조선인들이 새로운 감성적 차원, 즉‘중심-변두리’의 심상지리(imagined geography)를 갖게 된 역사적 시점과 겹치는 것이다. 이러한 심상지리가 전제된 상태에서<목포의 눈물>은 애초에‘향토노래’, 당시 하나의 트렌드를 형성하기 시작하던‘신민요’의 변종으로서 호명된 노래였다. <목포의 눈물>은1935년1월<조선일보> 지면을 통해 오케레코드사에서‘향토노래 현상모집’ 광고를 하여 뽑힌 목포출신의 시인 문일석의 노래가사에 작곡가 손목인의 가락을 붙여 이난영의 목소리로 녹음한 뒤 그해8월에 발표된 곡이다. 물론 양식적인 면에서<목포의 눈물>은 당시의 전형적인 신민요와는 상당 부분 구별되며, 보통의 유행가에 가까웠다.

따라서 그것은 음반사의 상업적 고려였을 뿐이기도 하지만, 8음반 라벨에까지‘신민요’라는 장르명을 붙여 발매되었다는 점은<목포의 눈물>이 갖는 독특한 문화적 의미를 오히려 강조해주는 면이 있다. 즉<목포의 눈물>은 유행가라는 당시로서는‘모던한’ 음악에서조차 요구된 지역색을 담은 노래, 다시 말해‘중심’을 의식하는‘변두리’의 노래였다는 점이다. ‘목포’라는 지역적 표상은 이러한 요구에 적절히 부응했는데 목포는 당시만 해도 지금과 같은 낙후된 소도시 이미지가 아니라 중국의 상하이와 같이 외래의 선진 문물을 향해 열려 있는 모던한 항구 도시로서의 이미지를 갖고 있었기 때문이다.

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Not to mention actress Greta Garbo, a Hollywood actress, and Japanese actresses like Irie Takako were also actors who reproduced the Western Woman Award. From this point, we can see the point where Lee's desire has been headed since his sensitive teenage years. This was not just the desire of Lee Nan-young's individual, but also the desire of the “modern girls” and “modern boys” of colonial Joseon in this era.


In the 1930s, the colonial Joseon's music culture began to become conscious of 'global' at the level of everyday culture through the transnational mass media such as records and Hollywood films, and also recognized 'local' through its global imagination. 7 The musical nostalgia of Koreans was limited to their physical space until they experienced the full-scale urban culture of this period. It was almost impossible to come across music from other regions, and even if it came into contact, there was no emotional dimension to set the composition of the “center-border”.


In short, the period of the mid 1930s when Lee Nan-young's Mokpo Tears was published and called was overlapping with the historical point when colonial Koreans had a new emotional dimension, the 'imagined geography' of the 'edge'. With this imagery presupposition, Mokpo's Tears was a song that was originally named as a 'local song', a variant of 'Shin Min-yo' that began to form a trend at the time. The Tears of Mokpo were written by the voice of the composer's wrist in the song lyrics by Moon Il-seok, a poet of Mokpo who was selected by the advertisement of 'Local Song Phenomenon' from O'Record Company on January 1935. After the recording, it was released in August of that year. Of course, Mokpo's tears were distinguished from the typical neo-folk songs of the time and were close to ordinary fashion.

Therefore, it was not only a commercial consideration of the record label, but the fact that it was released under the genre name of “Shin Min-yo” on the label of 8 albums emphasizes the unique cultural meaning of Mokpo Tears. In other words, Mokpo's Tears was a song of local color that was required even in 'modern' music at the time of being a popular singer, that is, a song of 'Burri', conscious of 'center'. The local representation of 'Mokpo' responded appropriately to this demand, because Mokpo was not the old image of a small town at the time, but a modern port city open to foreign advanced cultures such as Shanghai, China.


The young female singer Lee Nan-young from Mokpo also had the conditions to be the main character of the song (of Mokpo) in every way. The tears of farewell, shedding the pier's new evil, actually portray the point of frustration that is expected of young Lee's desire.


She wants to leave the port after her desire, but the reality of colonial Joseon requires her to stay in the port with the 'along hem'. With his unprecedented hits, Mokpo Tears, recorded at a young age, Lee was forced to accept this passive, traditional, and even 'theological' feminine image as part of her. It was, of course, different from the actual Lee Nan-young, who dared to ride a ferry to Japan at the age of sixteen, dreaming of (becoming the) “Greta Garbo of Joseon.”


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Ⅲ. 이난영과<다방의 푸른 꿈>

<목포의 눈물>을 포함한 식민지 시기 유행가의 공통되는2박 내지4박의 기초 리듬(이른바‘뽕짝 리듬’)은19세기의 케이크워크(cakewalk)나 래그타임(ragtime), 20세기 초반의 폭스트롯(foxtrot), 나아가 스윙(swing) 등에서 기원을 찾을 수 있는 서구 댄스홀 문화의 산물이다. 이는1차 세계대전과2차 세계대전 사이의 기간 미국의 음반 산업을 중심축으로 초국가적 대중음악 문화가 형성되면서 세계적으로 공유케 된 새로운 의미의 음악적 공통 관습(common practice)이라 할 수 있을 것이다. ‘폭스트롯’과‘스윙’은 당시 식민지 조선의 모던걸과 모던보이의 이상향을 표상하던 할리우드 영화의 배경음악에서 쉽게 들을 수 있는 모던한 리듬이기도 했다.

식민지 조선의 음반산업과 대중음악이 폭발적으로 성장하던1930년대 중후반의 시기는 이렇듯 새롭게 형성된 대중문화를 통해‘초기 세계화’의 징후를 드러내고 있었지만 식민지적 현실에서 그러한 세계적 조류는 언제나 일본을 경유해서 들어올 수밖에 없었다. 당시 레코드음악의 조류를 진단하는 태평레코드사의 문예부장 민효식의 다음 인용문을 보면 앞 절에서 살펴보았던‘신민요’에 대한 추구 또한 일본의 경향을 좇은 것이며, 마찬가지로 일본에서의 유행을 좇아‘재즈’ 음악이 식민지 조선에서도 유행할 조짐을 보이고 있음을 알 수 있을 것이다.

처음에‘民謠’가 한창 유행되던 시기로 말하면, 아직 일반이 레코-드에 대한 이해와 지식이 없엇을 때, 부득이한 현상으로서의 나타낫든 바 사실이겟고, 그 다음부터 한동안 유행되든 영화해설 등도 역시 東京에서부터 건너온 潮流이엿고 그 뒤‘流行歌’의 유행도 東京방면의 유행 그대로를 따러서 되엿든 것이 확실한 바입니다. 그러면 최근에 와서 갑작이 새로히 유행되고 잇는‘新民謠’ 역시 東京방면의 고전풍에 따라서 우리도 우리의 옛 것을 다시금 음미하여 보고 캐내여 다시금 불러보리라는 데서 나타난 현상이라고 봅니다. 그럼으로 이 땅의 레코-드界에도 마지하려는 새해부터는 東京방면에서 가장 만히 지금 유행의 중심점을 이루고 잇는 짜-즈盤이 유행될 것을 미리 예측하고도 남음이 잇을 것입니다. 벌서 얼마 전부터도 이 방법을 시험하여 본 회사가 잇섯스나, 이 해부터는 점점 만허저 갈 것이 사실입니다.

이난영은1935년<<삼천리>>에서 행한 레코드가수 인기투표에서 여가수 부문3위에 올랐는데, 당시1위와2위를 차지한 왕수복과 선우일선은 모두 기생출신 가수였다. 이난영은 기생출신이 아닌 만큼‘민요’와‘신민요’에 능했던 기생출신 가수들보다는 좀 더 모던한 음악, 나아가‘재즈’에 강세를 보였고, 실제로 그러한 음악을 지향하고 있었던 것으로 보인다. 그녀가 같은 오케레코드사 소속의 작곡가이자 가수 겸 연주자였던 김해송과 비교적 이른 나이에 결혼하게 된 것(이난영이 스물 한 살 되던1936년12월24일에 결혼)도 두 사람 사이의 인간적 교감만이 아니라 김해송이 추구한 재즈풍의 모던한 음악과 이난영의 음악적 지향이 공명을 이루었던 탓도 있을 것이다.

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III. Lee Nan-young and <The Blue Dream of a Coffee Shop>


The basic two- and four-night basic rhythms (collectively Mokpo Rhythms) of the colonial period, including Mokpo Tears, are the 19th century cakewalk, ragtime, and early 20th century foxtrot. It is the product of Western dancehall culture, whose origin can be found in foxtrot and even swing. This is a new meaning of musical common practice that has been shared worldwide as the transnational pop music culture was formed around the US record industry during the period between World War I and World War II. The Foxtrot and Swing were also modern rhythms that can be easily heard in the background music of Hollywood movies that represented the ideals of modern girls and modern boys in colonial Joseon.


In the mid-1930s, when the record industry and popular music of colonial Joseon grew explosively, these newly formed pop cultures showed signs of 'early globalization', but in colonial reality, such a global tide always came through Japan. There was no. The following quote from Min Hyo-sik, the director of literature at Taepyeong Records, which diagnoses the tide of record music at the time, follows the Japanese trend, and the pursuit of 'new folk songs', which was discussed in the previous section, is similar to 'jazz' music in Japan. It can be seen that the colonial shipbuilding shows signs of fashion.


In the beginning, when the people were in vogue, when the general public still had no understanding and knowledge of records, it was an unavoidable phenomenon, and the movie commentary, which was popular for a while, was also in Tokyo. It is clear that the flow of water came from the beginning, and that the trend of '流行歌' was changed after the trend of Tokyo. Then, “New People”, which is suddenly becoming a new trend, is also a phenomenon that we have to re-examine and re-examine our old things according to the classical style of Tokyo. Therefore, from the New Year's end of the year, the prefecture will be predicted that the Ja-zhuang, which is now the center of fashion in Tokyo, will become popular. It is true that the company has been testing this method for a while, and this company is going to go from six to six years later.


In 1935, Lee Nan-young was ranked third in the female singer category in the popular record voting in <Samcheon-ri>. At the time, Wang Soo-bok and Sun Woo Il-sun were both parasitic singers. Lee Nan-young was not a parasitic origin, so he showed more emphasis on more modern music and more 'jazz' than the parasitic singers who were good at 'Minyo' and 'Shin Minyo'. Her marriage to Kim Hae-song, a composer, singer and performer of the same Okérecord Company (married on December 24, 1936, when Lee Nan-young was twenty-one years old) was not only a human rapport between the two. It may be due to the resonance between the jazz-style modern music pursued by Kim Hae-song and the musical orientation of Lee Nan-young.


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식민지 조선의 음반시장이 정점에 이르던1939년과1940년에 이난영은 당시 평균적 수준을 훌쩍 뛰어넘는 세 곡의 두드러지는‘재즈’ 스타일의 곡을 발표한다. 스윙재즈 스타일의<바다의 꿈>(1939)과 블루스가 가미된<다방의 푸른 꿈>(1939), 그리고 경쾌한 집시 스윙 스타일의<항구의 붉은 소매>(1940)로 노랫말은 모두 조명암이 썼고, 작곡은 각각 박시춘, 김해송, 손목인이 담당했다. 이난영은<바다의 꿈>과<항구의 붉은 소매>에서 의미 없는 음절로 선율을 흥얼거리는 일종의‘스캣(scat)’까지 선보이며 재즈 보컬리스트로서의 능력을 과시하는데, 두 곡 모두에서 스윙 반주에 맞추어 가는 리듬감이 탁월하며 고음역과 저음역을 오가며 음색을 조율하는 방식이<목포의 눈물>과 같은 여타의 유행가를 부를 때와는 색다른 모습을 보인다. 예컨대<바다의 꿈>에서 각 절 끝부분(1절 가사의‘시원스런 꿈이나 꾸자’ 부분)의 저음 처리는 확실히 숙련된 재즈 보컬리스트의 면모를 보여주며, 그녀가 이미 일반 공연 무대에서도 이러한 재즈 스타일의 곡을 익숙하게 부르고 있었음을 짐작하게 해준다.

특히 큰 인기를 얻었던<다방의 푸른 꿈>은 중일전쟁 기간 일본의 블루스 음악 유행의 영향을 받은 것으로 10이난영의 남편 김해송이 작곡했다.

내뿜는 담배연기 끝에/ 희미한 옛 추억이 풀린다./ 고요한 찻집에서/ 커피를 마시며/ 가만히 부른다. 그리운 옛날을/ 부르누나 부르누나./ 흘러간 꿈은 찾을 길 없어/ 연기를 따라 헤매는 이 마음/ 사랑은 가고 추억은 슬퍼/ 블루스에 나는 운다./ 내뿜는 담배연기 끝에/ 희미한 옛 추억이 풀린다. – <다방의 푸른 꿈> 1절 가사

<다방의 푸른 꿈>을 부르는 이난영에 대한 황문평의 다음과 같은 회고담은 다소간 과장되거나 윤색된 기억의 가능성을 감안한다 해도<목포의 눈물>을 부를 때와는 전혀 다른 그녀의 모습을 그려볼 수 있게 해준다.

일제말엽 부민관(현 세종문화회관 별관) 무대에서 이난영은 검은 터번 머리에 담배를 피워 물고 약간 코에 걸린 목소리로 아주 애수에 잠긴 노래를 불렀다. 곡목은<다방의 푸른 꿈>, 아마 올드팬은 지금도 기억에 남아 있을 것이다. “내뿜은 담배연기 끝에 희미한 옛추억이 보인다…” 이 노래는 이난영의 진짜 히트넘버였다. 11

식민지 조선의 모더니티를 분석한 한 논문에서 저자인 유선영은 식민지 조선의 대중들이 식민지적 현실에서 공적 영역을 상실한 대신 사적 영역의 과잉 현상을 겪고 있었다면서, 미국이19세기말부터 일찍이 조선인들에게 기독교와 병원, 학교 설립 등을 통해 긍정적인 문명화의 이미지를 전파했을 뿐만 아니라 대중문화가 형성되는 시기에는 할리우드 영화와 재즈 음악을 통해 근대적 신체의 자유와 자유연애 사상을 일깨웠음을 지적한다. 당시 제도나 법률의 영역에서 조선을 지배한 것은 일본이었을지 모르지만 사적 욕망과 관련된 문화적 영역에서 조선의 대중들을 지배한 것은 오히려 미국이었다는 것이다. 12

이난영의 사적 욕망 또한 할리우드 영화와 재즈 음악의 본고장인 미국과 결부된 것이었고, <목포의 눈물>을 부르는 그녀보다는<다방의 푸른 꿈>을 부르는 이난영이 그러한 욕망의 실현에 좀 더 가깝게 다가선 모습이었다고 해도 좋을 듯하다. 하지만, 일본의 지배를 받는 것이었건 미국의 지배를 받는 것이었건 이난영의 이러한 사적 욕망은 그 온전한 실현을 맛보기 어려운 것이었다. 그 욕망 자체가, 제국주의적 세계질서와 초국가적 문화산업의 취약한 변두리 소비시장에 지나지 않았던 식민지적 현실에서 중심지를 향한 동경과 함께 싹튼 것으로서 그 중심지의 세력 판도에 따라 쉽게 좌절되고 상실될 수밖에 없는 것이었기 때문이다.

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