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V.A.: 유성기로 듣던 연극모음 (1930년대) / The collection of plays I heard during the Meteor period (1930s)

V.A.: 유성기로 듣던 연극모음 (1930년대) /

The collection of plays I heard during the Meteor period (1930s) 1997.03

I never bothered to review this 3CD which collected theatre works that is dominating with words over music, something that annoyed me at first just a bit too much because I don't understand a word of Korean. After having listened to the Movie Soundtrack of Mokpo I gave it another close listen. I knew there were fragments that still made it worth to make them like a musical radio play despite its wordy character. It also gives an impression what people could expect and how musicians and songs were shifted in....

CD 1 - 1 벌 밧는 어머니 (Columbia 40504) (1934) / Beebat mother 5:40

2 정희의 옵바 (Columbia) / Jeonghee's Obba 7:05

3 모성애 (Regal C264, 271) (1935-7) / Motherhood 6:24

4 순사와 산부 (Regal) (1935-7) / Rain of the East (?) 6:49

5 어머니의 힘 (Regal C2003-4) (1939) / The Power of Mothers 6:28

6 한 많은 신세 (Regal C214) (1934) / Many owe this 6:24

7 눈물 저즌 자장가 (Regal C281) (1935-7) / Lullaby of Tears 6:50

8 모던 심청전 (Regal C302) (1935) / Modern Simcheongjeon 6:51

9 누구의 죄 (Regal C373) (1937) / Whose sin? 6:45

The first CD starts with chamber music (piano and cello mostly) with an expressive dialogue happening at the same time, until the music stops to give more attention to the dialogue. That one is nice enough to listen to without understanding its words. Also the second track has a chamber-like accompaniment which changes quickly to give attention to a folk song performance with small combo. When a new dialogue starts the band accompanies this by a rather slowed down waltz. This is all musically interesting enough just to listen to, which makes it its performance more universal/international considering to attract foreign listeners attention here too. After some dialogue we hear the known Arirang folk song conclusion with a small jazz touch. The next dialogue has filmic arranged music in the background that makes me suspect this must or could also have been from a wide screen movie. The fourth track, with silent melancholic acoustic guitar leading, with subtle sounds mixed with dialogue is another more successful track to listen to. This track concludes with a song sung by feminine voice, accompanied by simple guitar and violin and later extra dual vocals. The other recordings for foreign ears could in fact be skipped. The next few tracks have much more dominance of dialogues and monologues with only fragments of solo murmured singing. Most tracks take a bit too long in dialogues that it never comes to that melting in sound and music, on that level. Some of them are also of less sound quality. For foreigners ears these couple of tracks could be skipped easily.

CD 2 - 1 말 못할 사정 (Columbia 40205-6) (1931) / Unspeakable Situation (?) 6:04

2 아리랑 고개 (Columbia 40251) (1931) / Arirang Pass (?) 6:25

연극 <아리랑 고개> - 1929년 극단 '토월회' 작품 / 박승희 원작 / 출연 이백수 석금성 박승희 / SP Columbia 40251 / 녹음 1931년 / Theater Arirang Pass-1929 Troupe 'Towolhoe' /

Original Park Seung Hee / Cast Lee Baek Soo Seok Geum Sung Park Seung Hee

3 순동(順童)이의 효성(孝誠) (Columbia 40464) (1933) / Hyosung's Hyosung (?) 11:14

4 동방(東方)의 비가(悲歌) (Columbia 40522) (1934) / The Rain from the East 3:26

5 버드나무선 동리(洞里)의 풍경(風景) (Columbia 40620) (1935) / Rows of Willow Trees 13:07

6 토막(土幕): 빵보 일가(一家)의 이향(離鄕) (Columbia 40205-6) (1931) /

Memories: At Home with the Panbo Family 6:53

7 일편단심(一片丹心): 고려말엽 정몽주(鄭夢周) 실전(實傳) (Okeh 1714) /

One-sided single heart: the practice of Jeong Mongju, at the end of Goryeo 7:03

8 낙화암(落花岩) (Okeh 1543) / Nakhwa Rock 6:28

9 낙랑공주와(樂浪公主) 마의태자(麻依太子) (비사극(悲史劇)) (Okeh 1614) /

The Princess of Falls and Ma'aetae (non-historical drama) 6:12

The first track again is basically only dialogue and in the end a melancholic almost western classical styled cello improvisation. A more outstanding track is the second one, starting with girlish voice of monologue which is abruptly interrupted. While the violin is playing a Bach-like part the effect the crying has so much like an almost rhythmical power, its sort of repetitions in words and sobbing sounds turning it almost into music. The third dialogue has a trot-like violin improvisation in the background. The fourth track starts with an early Japanese-like -styled song accompanied closely in melody by violin. A male voice speaks over it as if making its remarks from a distance. The violin continues but the duo engages itself in dialogue from there and for a certain length of time. After a long dialogue without much musical elements, and another track with the same violin as before with dialogue, and a mixed in song version, also these tracks do not really stand out with something. However "Nakwa Rock" starts with a jazz-folk styled song intro it is followed by rather long dialogue that does not show a musical rhythm that can make it survive a foreign interest listen without being engaged into its words behind it. Luckily, the last track is a new example worth hearing. It starts with an American jazz styled intro, which sadly is not very long because it's well played. Never the less, it still has entertaining and slightly grotesque voices after that. The male actor after a very short time starts to change its conversation into singing a Korean folk song, and further on we also have a nice accompaniment of sad violin with one of the voices.

CD 3 - 1 저승에 맷는 사랑 (Columbia 40497) (1934) / Love in the Afterlife 6:41

2 마즈막 편지 (Regal C242) (1935-7) / The Last Letter 6:48

3 무엇이 숙자를 죽였나 (Regal C280) (1935-7) / What Killed the Sufferer 6:52

4 불여귀 (Regal C312) (1935-7) / Firebird 3:26

5 상해야화 (Regal C352) (1935-7) / The Horse (?) 6:33

6 신장한몽 (Regal C458) (1938) / Shinhan Dream 6:37

7 사랑에 속고 돈에 울고 (Regal C2002) (1939) / Being loved and crying for money 6:47

8 사의 승리 (Regal C467) (1939) / Victory of Love 1:44

9 처량한 밤 (Columbia 40487) (1934) / Lame Night 6:38

Also on the third CD can be found certain tracks which are worth checking out for foreigners, - the first track especially. It has parts of a Japanese-flavoured song melody with violin, flute and acoustic guitar, alternated with somewhat emotional theatre play of dialogues. It gives an idea how certain interlude singers had to put their songs in. Then suddenly, a sad piece of Bach is played with cello and piano on which a male voice is telling a story.

This story telling continues in the next worthy track with male spoken word and song with piano and violin and piano with several parts including more Bach flavours and a bit of crying by a female voice. Also here the Japanese melancholic trot-like song returns in it a few times as a melancholic reminder and mood maker.

The track after that is another Japanese-like song with female and male voice, with first some monologues and then followed by some longer dialogue getting more and more dramatic. Some violin and guitar smoothens the situation a bit, but the woman still ends in a monologue of sadness.

The track after that starts with a group sung folk song, changes into dialogue with a violin/piano in the background accompanying the mood, without a real conclusion, as a fragment from a play. The next track with dialogues has slightly more dramatic chamber music playing in the background, but this time truly as a background and nothing more. One more dialogue with trot-violin and piano also did not give that feeling of a moment to show something different. Also the last track starts once more with Japanese-flavoured song on guitar/violin, but at this stage it becomes clear how such accompaniment can also become like a repetitive habitual context to add at least something to dialogue, but without a true necessity at the moment. Such tracks from a musical important historical level can be remembered that they existed, but become more irrelevant for the heritage of the human creative mind. The repeated formulas when expressed fully fitting well into its exact moment not only would dig into known patterns of nostalgic nature but then also can touch the human soul, where elsewhere they could also remain like too often repeated dust in which the player forgot to find a creative process in it to express his inner core for survival of the deepest connection.



사랑에 속고 돈에 울고' '신장한몽' 등 30년대 전성기를 누린 대중극 공연실황이 CD로 복원됐다. 신나라레코드는 10일 유성기로 녹음된 30년 대 연극 27편을 복각한 CD 3장을 발간했다. 이번 자료집 출간으로 특히 자료 부족으로 등한시 해온 30년대 신파극 실체가 공개돼 연극사 연구에 중요한 자료로 활용될 것으로 보인다. 사진설명 : 신나라레코드가 10일 30년대 연극 27편을 복원해 펴낸 '유성기로 듣던 연극모음'. 영화 '아리랑'의 나운규, '사랑에 속고 돈에 울고'의 황철, '만담 천 재' 신불출, 심영 같은 당대 쟁쟁한 배우들의 육성을 확인할 수 있는 것 도 커다란 수확이다. 이런 스타들은 대사가 분명하고 어조와 강약이 극에 어울려 이름값을 톡톡히 해내고 있다. 이외에도 석금성 박제행 김선초 김 선영 양백명 복혜숙 등이 녹음에 참여해 당시 배우들의 음색과 발성법을 연구할 수 있는 단초를 마련해 준다. 여배우들의 말투는 현재 북한이나 연변에서 사용하는 말씨와 유사해 흥미롭다. 유성기 음반 제작에는 당시 대표적 신극단체인 유치진의 '극예술연구 회'도 적극적으로 참여했다. 유치진 '토막'과 '버드나무 선 동리의 풍경' 은 당시 공연 분위기를 재현할 수 있는 가장 중요한 자료로 평가된다. 이 들은 대중극에 비해 훨씬 감정이 절제되고 정확한 문장을 구사하고 있어 당시 유행했던 대중극과 차별성을 띤다. 이번 음반에는 당시 인기 레퍼터리였던 가정비극 '순동이의 효성' '벌 받는 어머니' '정희의 오빠' 등 지금껏 희곡이 공개되지 않은 대중극도 다수 포함돼 있다. 특히 만담천재 신불출의 '일편단심'과 '낙화암', 카프 출신으로 대중극 작가로 변신한 박영호의 '단종애사 후일담', '배따랙이' 등 이름만 전해지던 극작가 작품도 실체를 확인할 수 있게 됐다. 신나라레코드는 이달중 유성기로 듣는 무성영화 모음(CD 3장)과 일제 하 대중가요 자료(CD 23장)도 출간할 예정으로 30년대 대중문화와 풍속사 연구에 귀중한 1차자료가 될 것으로 보인다. 김만수 군산대 국문과 교수 는"이번 자료발굴로 30년대 카프 작가와 극예술연구회를 중심으로 기술된 연극사에 대한 연구가 다시 이뤄져야할 것같다"고 말했다. (* 김기철기자·kichul@chosun com *)


Translated with help of Google Translate:

"Popular dramas in their 30s, with themes like being deceived by love and crying over money, all these live performances were now restored to CD. Shin Nara Records published three CDs with reprints out of 27 major plays. From the 30s, its scenes of drama were neglected to give attention to due to lack of information about it.

*"Na Un-kyu" of the movie "Arirang." Here we can confirm the upbringing of contemporary actors such as Shin, Shin-bul and Shim Young. Is also a great harvest. These stars have a clear line of voice,this is doing a good job with name value. In addition, Suk Geum Seong Kim Seoncho Kim, Yang Young-baek and Bok Hye-sook participated in the recording, names which provide a starting point for research. The actresses are currently talking about North Korea. It is interesting because it is similar to the developing used in Yanbian.

* Yoo Chi-jin's 'Theatrical Art Research.' Hoe (?) also actively participated in it. It consists of Yoo Chi-jin's 'Scene' and 'Landscape of Willow Trees.' This is considered to be the most important material to reproduce the atmosphere of performances at the time. The actors are much more restrained and speak accurate sentences more than they do in popular dramas. It makes this distinguished from popular dramas at that time.

In this album we can also find the domestic tragedy ``Sundong's Hyosung'', which was a popular repertoire at the time. Other popular dramas such as 'Receiving Mother' and 'Junghee's Brother'

amongst others are included too. In particular, 'one-sided', 'nakhwaam' and 'cap', Park Young-Ho's ``Discontinued Love Story'' and `Bae Ta Lak'. The dramatist's works, whose names were given can now be identified.

Shin Nara Records is also published in Japan in combination with a silent movie collection (3 CDs). Haha will also publish popular song materials (23 CDs). They are likely to become valuable primary data for research."

Kim Man-Soo Professor, Kunsan National University

"As a result of this publication, with authors of the 30's, I think the research on theatrical history should be redone."




일제강점기 평양기생, 사인도 해주는 최고 연예인


기생학교서 3년간 체계적 교육… 극장ㆍ음식점서 음악예술가로 활약

"관객들, 공연 보러 구름같이 몰려"

1 평양기생학교 관현악단이 연주하는 장면. 가운데 한복을 입은 기생이 가수다. 박찬승 한양대 사학과 교수 제공

평양기생학교 학생들이 풍자극 무용인 레뷰댄스를 추고 있다. 가운데 지팡이를 든 댄서 역시 남장을 한 기생이다. 박찬승 한양대 사학과 교수 제공

“모두 비상한 박수갈채를 보냈다. 단원들은 열광했다.(중략)노래가 끝나자 기생들을 찾아가 사인을 구하는 사람들이 쇄도했다. 기생들은 능숙한 솜씨로 서명을 했다.”

1920년대 한 일본인 무리가 장고를 치며 일본 유행가를 부르는 평양기생들을 보고 남긴 글이다. 그들은 평양의 기생학교를 “진기한 것”으로 표현하며 “앞으로 5년, 10년 뒤에는 그녀들 중 놀라운 배우, 음악가 등 예술가가 나오게 될 것”이라고 찬사를 보냈다. 실제 당시 평양기생이라 하면 미와 끼를 갖춘 조선시대 최고의 ‘예능인’으로 손꼽혔다. 이들을 길러내는 평양 기생학교는 일본인들의 평양 관광 필수코스로 자리잡았고, 일본이나 타국 사람들이 평양 관광을 왔다가 기생구경을 하고 가지 않으면 의아해할 정도였다.

박찬승 한양대 사학과 교수가 지난 24, 25일 한양대에서 열린 ‘동아시아의 문화표상’국제학술회의에서 평양기생에 대한 연구 논문인 ‘표상으로서의 평양기생’을 발표했다. 조선의 기생문화를 다룬 논문이나 책은 적지 않지만 그 대표격인 평양기생을 식민지 시기를 중심으로 다룬 논문은 별로 없다.

이 논문에 따르면 1914년 37명에 불과했던 평양기생은 1929년 164명, 1934년 285명, 1940년에는 600여명으로 늘어났다. 평양기생수가 이처럼 급격히 늘어난 건 평양이 기생교육의 본거지로 자리잡으며 많은 사람들이 이곳으로 몰려들었기 때문이다.

평양의 기생학교는 갑오개혁 이전 관기 교육시설에서 출발해 대한제국시절 ‘기생서재(書齋)’가 들어서며 체계적인 교육을 실시했다. 이후 기생서재가 많아지자 통합 작업도 있었고, 그 결과 1921년에 이 ‘기성권번 학예부’가 탄생했다. 이곳에서 기생들은 3년 코스로 시조, 가곡, 산수, 춤, 노래, 일본어 등을 익혔다. 그 중에서도 노래를 가장 중요시했는데 기생들은 양반들이 유유자적하면서 위엄을 잃지 않는 분위기로 노래하는 가곡, 애절한 아리랑 등을 배웠다.

1930년대 들어서는 근대화에 젖어 들기 시작한 젊은이들을 위해 풍자극 무용인 레뷰(revue) 춤도 배웠다. 기생학교 학생들의 공연을 본 한 일본인은 “꽃과 같이 아름다운 유명한 일류 기생들”이라며 “우아하고 기품이 있는 자태는 해당화가 이슬을 머금은 듯했다”고 기록했다. 그는 또 평양기생들의 음악성을 높이 평가해 “그녀들을 음악예술가로서 대우했다”고 했다.

평양기생들은 학교를 벗어나 음식점 누각이나 극장서 가무연주회를 개최하기도 했다. 당시 매일신보는 “밤마다 구경하러 나오는 사람들이 구름같이 몰려들었다”며 “수십여 명의 선녀같이 아름다운 예기의 얼굴들이 등불 빛에 둘러싸였다”고 보도했다. 공연이 끝나면 기생들에게 사인을 받기 위한 사람들이 우르르 몰려들기도 했다. 재능을 인정받은 기생 중에는 가수로 직업을 변경하는 경우도 많았다. 박 교수는 논문에서 “평양이 ‘가수의 도시’라고 불릴 만큼 최고의 인기를 누리는 기생가수들이 많이 있었다”고 설명했다. 한 예로 당대 최고의 인기 가수로 손꼽혔던 왕수복은 1937년 도쿄로 유학을 떠났다 귀국 직후부터 북한서 민요가수로 활동해 공훈 배우가 됐다.

평양기생의 삶이 평탄한 것만은 아니었다. 인기가 많고 잘 나가는 기생이 있으면 반대로 ‘잘 안 팔리는’기생도 있는 법이다. 이들은 대개 매음으로 빠졌고, 이것이 사회문제가 되면서 기독교, 청년회 등의 신랄한 비판을 받았다. 언론 또한 기생들의 밀매음을 앞장서 비판하기도 했는데 당시 동아일보는 그런 기생을 더러“더럽게 몸을 팔고 음란한 노래를 부르며 부끄러움 없이 시가지와 보통 인가 근처에 섞여 (중략)풍기를 문란케 한다”고 보도했다. ‘기생=매음녀’라는 이미지가 생겨나 기생폐지론이 대두된 배경이다. 하지만 박 교수는 “평양기생들은 기생학교에서의 수업, 연주회, 대중가수로의 진출 등으로 인해 예능인으로서의 이미지를 강하게 갖고 있었다”며 이들을 대표하는 표상은 “연예인”이라고 평가했다.



Translation with help of Google Translate:

Pyeongyang Gisaeng, Japanese celebrity, 2015.04.28

Three years of systematic education in the "Lowlife Art" (entertainment) School… to become active as a music artist in theaters and restaurants.

Audiences flock like clouds wants to see the show

See images in gallery. Scene played by the Pyongyang Parasitic School Orchestra. Gisaeng in the middle hanbok is a singer. Image: Park Chan-seung, Professor of Hanyang University

See image. Pyongyang Lowlife Entertainment School students are performing a recital dance, which is a stimulating dance. The dancer with a cane in the middle is also a lowlife entertainer gown. Park Chan-seung, Professor of Hanyang University.

“Everyone applauded extraordinary performances. The members were enthusiastic; after the song, people flooded with lowlife art entertainers seekers for such signs.”

In the 1920s, a group of Japanese people watched the performance of Pyongyang Gisaeng, a Japanese fashion song. They expressed Pyongyang's entertainment school as "rare" and praised "in the next five or ten years: there will be some amazing actors, musicians, and artists in the future." In fact, Pyongyang was considered one of the best “entertainer schools” of the Joseon Dynasty expressing beauty. The Pyongyang Parasitic School, which raises them, has become a must-see course for Japanese tourists in Pyongyang.

Park Chan-seung, professor of history at Hanyang University, presented his research paper on Pyongyang Parasitics at the International Conference on Cultural Representation in East Asia held at Hanyang University. Although there are not many papers or books on the 'parasitic' (lowlife entertainment art) culture of Joseon, few papers dealt with the representative Pyongyang parasitics/entertainers centering on the colonial period.

According to the paper, the number of Pyongyang entertainers, which had only 37 in 1914, increased to 164 in 1929, 285 in 1934, and 600 in 1940. The reason why Pyongyang's lowlife art waters increased so much is because Pyongyang has become the home of entertainment education and many people have flocked to it.

Pyongyang's Entertainment School started from Kwan-Oh Reformed Kwan-Ok Education Facility and started the systematic education with the “Gisa-Gyeongseo” written in the Korean Empire. Later, as the entertainer library increased, there was the work to integrate somewhere. Here, the entertainer students learned about Sijo, song, arithmetic, dancing, singing, and Japanese in a three-year course. Among them, song was the most important, but the entertainer students learned the songs and the sad Arirang who sing in an atmosphere that does not lose their dignity and dignity.

In the 1930's, he also learned revue, a satirical dance for young people who had begun to become modernized. A Japanese who saw the performances of KSI students said, “The famous first class entertainers are as beautiful as flowers.” “The elegant and graceful figure seemed to be covered with dew.” He also praised Pyongyang's musicality for "treating them as music artists."

Pyongyang students left school to hold restaurant pavilions and dance performances in theaters. At that time, daily news reports "people coming out to watch every night flocked like a cloud," and "a beautiful face like dozens of fairies were surrounded by the light of the lantern." At the end of the concert, people gathered to get autographs. Many of the talented entertainer graduates changed their careers to singers. Professor Park explained, "There were a lot of entertainment singers who are so popular that Pyongyang is called the city of singers." Wang Soo-bok, one of the most popular singers of his time, left for study in Tokyo in 1937 and soon became a folk song singer in North Korea.

Pyongyang's life was not just plain. If there is a popular and well-meaning entertainment, there is also an entertainer which was 'not selling'. They were usually hooked, and as this became a social problem, they were severely criticized by Christians and youth groups. The media also criticized the trafficking of the entertainer leaders at the time, and the Dong-A Ilbo reported that the lowlife art entertainer "sold the body were dirty, sang obscene songs, and were mixed in with the neighborhood and city hall without shame." It is the background of the lowlife entertainer abolition theory that emerged them as being 'parasitic = Maeumyeo'. However, Professor Park said, “Pyongyang's students had a strong image as entertainers due to classes, concerts, and advances to popular singers.

Jin Gi Kim,


Other Korean page about this at


20세기 초 공연예술 한 축 ‘기생’, 일제의 단속 탓 ‘매춘부’로 인식

김종목 기자


‘기생’이 식민지·국가 권력에 의해 변질되는 과정은 20세기 역사의 단면을 보여준다. 일제시대 공연예술계의 주축을 이뤘던 기생들의 공연 장면. | 경향신문 자료사진

‘기생’이 식민지·국가 권력에 의해 변질되는 과정은 20세기 역사의 단면을 보여준다. 일제시대 공연예술계의 주축을 이뤘던 기생들의 공연 장면. | 경향신문 자료사진

왜 기생일까. 지난 25·26일 부산대에서 열린 전국역사학대회의 주제는 ‘역사 속의 소수자: 공존과 배려를 위해’였다. 그중 한국사와 여성사 세션에서 ‘기생’에 대한 논문이 4편이나 나왔다. 논문들은 일제강점기부터 박정희 정권까지 근대 이전의 ‘문화예술인’이던 기생이 식민지·국가 권력으로부터 배제되는 과정을 좇아간다.

권도희 서울대 동양음악연구소 강사는 ‘20세기 기생, 소수자 만들기와 벗어나기’에서 기생을 20세기 전반 공연예술계와 관련해 설명한다. 이 시기의 기생들은 문화산업의 한 축이었다. 3·1운동 이전까지 기생들은 전통 가무로부터 댄스 등 신식 공연까지 다양한 기획물을 무대에서 선보였다. 그러나 기생조합이 중심이 된 창조적 공연 경쟁은 일제의 단속으로 위축된다. 1920년대 신문사들은 독자 위안이란 명분으로 기생 공연을 벌였다. 1930년대 거대 음반사가 시장을 좌우하면서 가창력 있는 기생이 부각되기도 했다.

▲ 기생조합 만들어 창조적 공연… 분단 후 문화양상 변화로 소외

60~70년대 영화 ‘남자 기생’ 밤 문화·성매매·동성애 보여줘

권 강사는 “20세기 전반 기생은 법적·제도적으로 ‘창기’가 아니었다. 그러나 경찰의 풍속 단속(창기 단속) 등의 법 조항은 사회적으로 이들을 암묵적인 추업부(醜業婦)로 의심하도록 하는 교육 효과를 낳았다”고 말한다. 그는 “일제의 경찰 권력이 끊임없이 기생을 억압했음에도 기생들은 문화산업의 영역에서 성공의 기회를 모색했다”며 “그러나 분단 이후 문화산업 자본이 형성되고 문화 향유의 양상이 달라지면서 기생의 기예는 소외됐다”고 설명했다.

박정미 한양대 비교역사문화연구소 HK연구교수는 1970~1980년대 기생관광 반대운동의 역사와 담론을 살핀다. 기생관광 반대운동은 해방 후 최초 여성 연대운동이었다. 이화여대 학생 10여명은 1973년 12월19일 김포국제공항 입국대합실에서 ‘매춘관광을 반대한다’라고 쓴 피켓을 들고 시위를 벌였다. 박 교수는 “좌익 여성운동은 궤멸되고, 우익 여성운동은 독재정부에 노골적으로 영합하거나 체제에 위협이 되지 않는 온건한 활동에 전념하며 명맥을 유지하던 상황에서 여학생들의 직접 행동은 5분 만에 진압되고 말았지만 여성운동의 변화를 알리는 일종의 신호탄”이었다고 밝혔다. 일본에서도 ‘기생관광에 반대하는 여성들의 모임’이 ‘성침략을 고발한다’는 자료집을 내며 활동했다. 일본의 운동가들이 반대운동 과정에서 주조한 ‘성 제국주의’ 개념은 성매매를 둘러싼 국제적 여성운동과 페미니스트 연구에 유의미한 반향을 일으켰다. 박 교수는 그러나 ‘사회문제’로서 기생은 사라졌지만, 기생의 형상은 전형적인 서발턴(하위주체)으로서 성매매 반대운동에서도 재현됐다고 비판한다.

영화 <남자(와) 기생>(1969) 포스터. | 경향신문 자료사진

영화 <남자(와) 기생>(1969) 포스터. | 경향신문 자료사진

1960년대 말과 1970년대 초 나왔던 <남자 식모> <남자 미용사>와 비슷한 계열의 코미디 영화인 <남자(와) 기생>은 당대 문화정치를 읽을 수 있는 텍스트다. 김청강 한양대 비교역사문화연구소 HK연구교수는 1969년 신필름이 제작한 영화 <남자(와) 기생>을 “이성애적 가부장 질서의 균열”로 해석했다. 이 영화는 남자 주인공이 여자 기생으로 변장하면서 벌어지는 여러 에피소드가 중심이다. 주인공의 여자 같은 행동을 싫어해 회사에서 회고한 사장이 여자 기생으로 변장한 주인공에게 묘한 매력을 느끼는 설정도 들어 있다.

김 교수는 “당시 사회가 드러내지 않았던 남성 중심의 밤 문화, 성매매 지대의 내부, 남성이 남성에게 끌릴 수 있는 동성애의 가능성을 가시화한다”고 분석한다. 이 영화는 검열에서 자유롭지 않았다. 검열 당국은 여러 대사와 장면을 삭제했고, 제목 ‘남자 기생’도 어감이 안 좋다고 ‘남자와 기생’으로 바꿔 개봉하라고 명령했다.



In the early twentieth century, the performing arts were considered as 'prostitutes' because of Japanese crackdowns.

By Kim Jong Mok, 2013.10.27

The process by which the 'parasitics' (= "lowlife art entertainers") were transformed by colonial and state powers is an aspect of the history of the 20th century. Look at the pictures of the performance scene of entertainer artists who played a pivotal role in the performing arts from the Japanese colonial era.

Why is it "parasitic"? The theme of the National Historical Conference held at Pusan ​​National University on 25/26 was “Minority in History: for Coexistence and Consideration.” Among them, four papers about the 'parasitic' entertainers appeared in Korean and female history sessions. The papers follow the process of exclusion of colonial and state power from the pre-modern 'culture artists' from the Japanese colonial period to the Park Chung-hee regime.

Kwon Do-hee, a lecturer at Seoul National University's Institute for Oriental Music, explains the parasitic arts related to the performing arts world in the 20th century. Entertainers of this period were at an axis of the cultural industry. Before the March 1st Movement, the 'parasitic' or lowlife entertainment arts exhibited various projects on stage, from traditional dances to new performances such as dance. However, the competition for creative performances centered on entertainment unions is curtailed by Japanese crackdown. In the 1920s, newspapers held entertainment performances in the name of comforting its readers. In the 1930s, record labels dominated the market, creating a prominent lowlife art.

Creative performance made by the entertainment union caused a form of alienation due to cultural changes after division. 60's and 70's ‘Male Parasitics’ Show the Nightlife, Prostitution and Homosexuality.

Kwon said, “The first half of the 20th century was not a entrance legally and institutionally. But the provisions of law, such as police crackdowns, have created an educational effect that makes them suspect and socially implicit. He said, “Although the power of Japanese police constantly suppressed lowlife entertainers, they looked for opportunities for success in the field of cultural industries.” However, the lowlife arts were alienated after cultural divisions formed and cultural aspects of culture changed.

Park Jung-mi, an HK research professor at the Hanyang University Institute of Comparative History and Culture, examines the history and discourse of the antiparasitic movement in the 1970s and 1980s. The anti-parasitic movement was the first women's solidarity movement after liberation. More than 10 students from Ewha Womans University demonstrated on December 19, 1973, with a picket saying “I oppose prostitution tourism” at the arrival hall of Gimpo International Airport. Professor Park said, “With the left-wing women's movement ruined, and the right-wing women's movement devoted itself to moderate activities that did not openly meet or threaten the regime, the direct action of the girls was suppressed in five minutes. It was a kind of signal to announce a change in the women's movement. ” In Japan, the "Gathering of Women Against Parasitic Tourism," published a collection of data on "accusing sexual aggression." The concept of “sex imperialism” cast by Japanese activists in the course of opposition movements has had a significant impact on international women's movements and feminist studies around prostitution. Professor Park, however, criticizes that the parasitic disappeared as a "social problem," but the parasitic form was reproduced in the anti-prostitution movement as a typical Subbalton.

The comedy film 'Man and Gisaeng', similar to Man Hairdresser, which appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, is a text that can read contemporary political politics. Kim Cheong-gang, a research professor at Hanyang University's Institute of Comparative History and Culture, interpreted the film 'Man and Parasiticism' produced by New Film in 1969 as "the crack of heterosexual patriarchal order." The film is centered on several episodes of a male hero dressed as a female entertainer. There is also a setting where the boss, who hates the heroine's act like a woman, feels fascinated by the main character disguised as a female entertainer.

Professor Kim analyzes, "It visualizes the male-centered nightlife that was not revealed at the time, the interior of the prostitution zone, and the possibility of homosexuality that can be attracted to men." This film was not free from censorship. The censorship officials removed several lines and scenes, and ordered the title "male parasitic" to be unsatisfactory.

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